The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent.

In this publication, “$” refers to United States dollars, “€” refers to euros, “£” refers to pounds sterling, “₹” refers to Indian rupees, A$ refers to Australian dollars, and “ST” refers to Samoan tala.

ADB recognizes “China” as the People’s Republic of China; “Hong Kong” as Hong Kong, China; “Korea” as the Republic of Korea; “Laos” as the Lao People’s Democratic Republic; “Micronesia” as the Federated States of Micronesia; “Russia” as the Russian Federation; “Siam” as Thailand; and “Vietnam” as Viet Nam. By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area in this microsite, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

Effective 1 February 2021, ADB placed a temporary hold on sovereign project disbursements and new contracts in Myanmar. ADB also placed its regular assistance to Afghanistan on hold effective 15 August 2021, but since 2022 has supported the Afghan people through a special arrangement with the United Nations to address basic human needs, including critical food support, and health and education services. The Afghanistan Infrastructure Trust Fund is considered as one financial source in this database.

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