Regulating the Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and Government Policies in Asia

Event | 8 - 9 April 2013 University of Hong Kong


The policy forum was a joint activity of the Hong Kong University Comparative Education Research Center, ADB Education Community of Practice, and UNESCO. It focused on Asia's shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring on the levels of primary and secondary education.

The policy forum studied the following documents:

  • laws
  • regulations
  • guidelines
  • codes of practice
  • other relevant documents.


The policy forum brought together stakeholders from the Asian region. Some were from countries which have long been concerned about shadow education, particularly in East Asia, while others were from countries where the issues are only just coming onto official agendas. The participants included:

  • personnel from ministries of education
  • operators of tutoring centers
  • researchers
  • staff of international organizations concerned with education
  • parents