From devastating floods in Pakistan to growing water scarcity in Central Asia, the impacts of climate change vary widely. The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program—a partnership of 11 countries from Central Asia, South Asia, the Caucasus, as well as Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China—is working to increase regional cooperation to help the region shift to low-carbon energy sources and build resilience against climate-induced hazards. Initiatives include collaboration in clean energy development, water resources management, and disaster risk preparedness and response.

Here are some key figures that illustrate the impacts of climate change in the CAREC region and demonstrate how vital it is for countries to work together for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Decrease in glacier area in Central Asia
A forthcoming CAREC study on climate change outlines key climate change issues in the region and identifies potential areas for cooperation.


Decrease in glacier surface area in Central Asia over the past 50-60 years as a result of changing climate conditions. The melting of snowcaps combined with intensifying weather events have triggered natural calamities such as floods and landslides that are happening more frequently and severely.

People affected by massive flooding in Pakistan
Widespread floods across Pakistan earlier this year demonstrated the country’s high vulnerability to climate change. Photo: Daniel Berehulak

33 million

The number of people affected by massive flooding in Pakistan in mid-2022. Heavy rains triggered flash floods, landslides, and glacial lake outbursts. In July, the country received more than 60% of average annual monsoon rainfall in just three weeks.

Amount Pakistan needs for rehabilitation and reconstruction
Post-floods support for Pakistan will help improve the country’s resilience against future climate change impacts. Photo: Rana Sajid Hussain

$16.3 billion

The amount Pakistan needs to rehabilitate and reconstruct its damaged infrastructure and agriculture following the floods that submerged a third of the country. This figure doesn’t include new investments beyond the affected assets.

Estimated drop in water volumes in the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya basins by 2050
The Aral Sea, once the largest inland lake in the world, has shrunk over the past decades due largely to heavy water use for irrigation.

10% to 15%

Estimated drop in water volumes in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins by 2050. These two large rivers are crucial sources of water for countries in Central Asia. By 2050-2100 water volumes could decrease by up to 30% in the Syr Darya basin and as much as 40% in the Amu Darya, making it even more important for countries to work together to ensure the region’s water is managed sustainably.

Uzbekistan's current water deficit
Improving water use efficiency will help eliminate the gap between water demand and supply in Central Asia.

3 billion cubic meters

Uzbekistan’s current water deficit, which could increase to 7 billion cubic meters by 2030 and up to 15 billion cubic meters by 2050 given the decrease of water volumes in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins.

Average installed solar and wind energy capacity in the CAREC region
Increasing the share of renewable energy in the regional energy mix is vital to the sustainability of the CAREC region’s energy future.


The average installed solar and wind energy capacity in the CAREC region despite abundant renewable energy potential. The CAREC region, which is home to some of the most energy-intensive economies in the world, relies heavily on fossil fuels and hydropower for energy.

Amount of energy investments the CAREC region
ADB is supporting the low-carbon transition in the CAREC region by deploying more renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, among others.

$339 billion

The amount of energy investments the CAREC region (excluding the PRC) needs by 2030 to enable green growth. Current investments are only about a quarter of this, with most coming from the public sector. The CAREC Green Energy Alliance seeks to attract more investment by mobilizing finance for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects from international and domestic sources.