Project Name Greater Mekong Subregion Flood and Drought Risk Management and Mitigation Project (CAM)
Project Number 40190-013
Country Regional
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 0330-REG: Greater Mekong Subregion Flood and Drought Risk Management and Mitigation (CAM)
Strategic Climate Fund US$ 5.80 million
Loan 2970-REG: Greater Mekong Subregion Flood and Drought Risk Management and Mitigation (CAM)
Concessional ordinary capital resources / Asian Development Fund US$ 35.00 million
Loan 8262-REG: Greater Mekong Subregion Flood and Drought Risk Management and Mitigation (CAM)
Strategic Climate Fund US$ 4.00 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Regional integration
Drivers of Change Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Irrigation - Rural flood protection

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description The project will support the Government of Cambodia as it undertakes structural and nonstructural measures to prepare for and manage disaster risks linked to floods and droughts. Project interventions will (i) enhance the regional data, information, and knowledge base for the management of floods and droughts; (ii) upgrade or develop water management infrastructure; and (iii) prepare communities to manage disasters such as floods and droughts, and adapt to climate change. Improved drought management and irrigation water structures in Cambodia will benefit farmers on about 16,000 hectares (ha) of agricultural lands, and at least 10,000 people will benefit from improved flood management.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

The Mekong River is a major influence on the lives of the people in Cambodia. Annual floods are a source of livelihood and sustenance, but extreme flood events and droughts cause widespread hardship. The costs to the countries of the Lower Mekong basin (LMB), in terms of loss of life and damage to infrastructure by floods and economic losses from both flood and drought events are significant. In Cambodia, between 1987 and 2007, 15 flood events resulted in over 1,150 deaths, disrupted the lives of over nine million persons, and when combined with losses from five drought events, caused over $465 million in damage to structures and crops. Although the annual average losses are relatively low, floods and drought events cause episodic losses as illustrated by Typhoon Ketsana in September 2009 which resulted in $132 million losses in Cambodia. Flood damage and associated losses were estimated to range from 0.30 to 0.45% of gross domestic product in 2009 in the lower Mekong basin countries.

There is a growing need for improved community preparedness to manage increasingly frequent and severe climatic extremes. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme flood events. While drought events do not result directly in deaths or structural damage, the disruption to lives and livelihoods, and the economic loss of agricultural production is substantial and limits the ability of rural communities to avoid poverty. These weather extremes illustrate the growing need for improving community preparedness to manage increasingly frequent disaster risks. Updating of infrastructure design standards will contribute to reducing the risks in Cambodia.

While many of the nonstructural problems of data, warning systems and coordination of agencies are generic to LMB countries, problems related to physical structures, including canals, drains, control structures, are site specific. Flood and drought risk management as well as building communities' resilience are identified as priorities in the national strategic development plans, sector strategies and national climate change adaptation plans.

The proposed investment is one of the flagship programs of the 2002 Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Economic Cooperation Program Strategic Framework. Country agriculture and natural resources (ANR) sector assessments have confirmed drought and flood (extreme weather) events as key constraints to economies of the project countries and as contributing factors to persistent poverty in areas affected. Consequently, the proposed Project has two foci: (i) subregional activities to strengthen regional cooperation and integration (RCI) with regard to water resources management in general and flood/drought management in particular, and (ii) in country investments which combine structural and non-structural investments. Together, these will address the key subsector constraint of insufficient disaster preparedness of countries and communities to manage and mitigate the potential impacts of climate extremes.

Impact Reduced economic losses resulting from flood and droughts

Project Outcome

Description of Outcome Improved capacity and preparedness to manage and mitigate the impacts of flood and drought events
Progress Toward Outcome Implementation of Output 1: Enhanced regional data, information and knowledge base for management of floods and droughts; and Output 3: Community based disaster risk management is on track. Output 2: Upgraded water management infrastructure is progressing well but requires improvement in expediting design of civil works and their awards. The Project is expected to achieve the envisaged outcome by the scheduled completion date.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Enhanced regional data, information, and knowledge base for the management of flood and drought

Upgraded water management infrastructure

Enhanced capacity for community-based disaster risk management

Effective project implementation

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

1- Based on the decision during inception workshop of NFFC consultants in April 2016, a two dimensional river flow simulation model (HEC-RAS 5.0.1) for flood forecasting and early warning system is being developed. The model will provide forecast of flood peaks, water levels, duration of flood wave and area to be inundated/flooded by the flood wave with reasonable level of accuracy. The model will be developed for entire reach of Mekong river in Cambodia, Tonle Sap river, and Pursat river. The model is expected to be fully calibrated by December 2016, tested during 2017 flood season, and commissioned by September 2017. Technical specifications for the forecast and dissemination system will be prepared by end September 2016. A mock drill of the early warning system will be conducted before 2017 monsoon season. The consultants will also deliver digital and hard copies of the flood plain maps for 25, 50 and 100 year floods. The bid evaluation report (BER) for the hydro-meteorological equipment has been submitted for ADB review. Requirements and specifications for the civil works to install hydro-meteorological equipment have been prepared. Activities related to the development of climate resilient design guidelines for structural protection are scheduled to begin in May 2017. The country will be divided in three flood zones: high, medium and low, and safety factors (in percentage terms) will be determined to add to the design parameters of hydraulic and other structures. That will help designers incorporate resilience against floods in the designs. For droughts, measures would be suggested to incorporate in the overall scope and design of water sector projects to deal with shortage of water with minimum loss to subsistence agriculture and human needs.

2. Detailed engineering design, bill of quantities, and bidding documents of the barrage and main canal have been completed. Bids for barrage were received in June and BER is in approval process. The Bidding Document for the main canal has been prepared and is in approval process. The work on completing detailed engineering design, bill of quantities and draft bidding documents for secondary and tertiary canals needs to be expedited. The design capacity of the main canal at head is 22.4 cumecs to irrigate 16,100 ha. There will be four secondary canals off-taking from right side of the main canal and each will have tertiary canals to ensure water supply to farms.

3- Five commune coordination committees (CCC) and two district coordination committees have been established. Establishment of farmers' water user community (FWUC) is expected by September 2017. Hazard and vulnerability maps of all 46 villages have been prepared. Training of communities will start in October 2016 and complete in March 2017. A CBDRM Advisory Group (CBDRM-AG) has been established at Pursat province level. Advisory Group is headed by Deputy Governor of Pursat province and comprises one member each from six provincial government departments, Cambodia Red Cross, seven local NGOs, and provincial disaster risk management committee (PCDM). First meeting of the group was held in May 2016 and second meeting will be held in October 2016. The group will be a think tank for CBDRM that may be upscaled to national level if found to be useful and workable. The Project will organize a regional seminar on CBDRM in 2017 in Cambodia. The GMS-flood and Drought Projects in Lao PDR and Vietnam will be invited to participate.

4. All facilities are in place for supporting project implementation

Geographical Location Regional

Safeguard Categories

Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement A
Indigenous Peoples C

Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects

Environmental Aspects All identified adverse impacts resulting from the location, design, construction, and operation of the water management infrastructure are expected to be small to moderate and can be mitigated. Environmental management plan (EMP) for each subproject will be prepared and included in the works contract for implementing mitigation measures identified in the EMP.
Involuntary Resettlement A resettlement plan (RP) prepared during PPTA was endorsed by the government and disclosed on ADB's website. The RP is being updated. One RP for main canal and barrage; and one RP for secondary and tertiary canals will be finalized before commencing civil works.
Indigenous Peoples No indigenous people maintaining distinct cultural identities or separate cultural traditions were found to reside in the project area.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Stakeholder consultations were conducted during the Project preparation, including during resettlement plan preparations and socio economic surveys in all areas covered by the Project District governments and officials of the communes, representatives of Women's Unions, Youth Organizations and potential affected people participated in various consultations. Focus group discussions with women were also conducted. Project Information Booklets written in the local languages were distributed and explained to the participants during those meetings. During inventory of losses the potential Affected Peoples were consulted on their initial preferences for resettlement and informed of the compensation and entitlement.
During Project Implementation

Consultation and participatory design of interventions is in process. Consultations are ongoing with the farmers and potential affectees during the process of updating the resettlement planning documents.

Community based disaster risk management actions are being supported in parallel to each infrastrucuture investment to ensure maximum ownership and understanding of the investments in each community. All village communities in the Project area have been consulted in the process of hazard and vulnerability assessment and for carrying our socio-economic surveys. Capacity development plan for the communities have been prepared in consultation with them for disaster risk management. Training of master trainers have been completed. The training program is about to start. Farmers are also involved in the design of canals rehabilitation works and they will be trained to manage the sustainable operation and maintenance of the infrastruture developed through the Project. The Project has established a CBDRM Advisory Group (CBDRM-AG) at Pursat province level. Advisory Group is headed by Deputy Governor of Pursat province and comprises one member each from six provincial government departments, Cambodia Red Cross, seven local NGOs, and provincial disaster risk management committee (PCDM). The group will be a think tank for CBDRM that may be upscaled to national level if found to be useful and workable. The Project will organize a regional seminar on CBDRM in 2017 in Cambodia. The GMS-flood and Drought Projects in Lao PDR and Vietnam will be invited to participate.

Business Opportunities

Consulting Services All consultants and nongovernment organizations (NGO) to be financed by the ADB loan will be recruited according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants. The project implementation consultants will assist the CPMU with project implementation support, such as, (i) build the capacity of CPMU and PIUs in project management, procurement, and financial management; (ii) assist in updating the resettlement plan and environmental management plans based on the approved detailed engineering design; and (iii) assist in monitoring, evaluation and reporting.
Procurement Procurement of civil works packages and goods and services following international competitive bidding and national competitive bidding procedures will be carried out by the CPMU. The EA will undertake procurement following ADB Procurement Guidelines.

Responsible Staff

Responsible ADB Officer Long, Piseth Vou
Responsible ADB Department Southeast Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Cambodia Resident Mission
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology
364 Monivong Blvd, Khan Chamkamorn Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Timetable

Concept Clearance 05 May 2011
Fact Finding 28 Mar 2011 to 31 May 2011
MRM 06 Jul 2012
Approval 12 Dec 2012
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 29 Sep 2016

Grant 0330-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
12 Dec 2012 17 Jan 2013 23 Jun 2014 30 Sep 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 8.75 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 12 Dec 2012 0.00 4.70 81%
Counterpart 2.95 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 5.80 12 Dec 2012 0.00 1.58 27%

Loan 2970-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
12 Dec 2012 17 Jan 2013 23 Jun 2014 30 Sep 2019 - -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 35.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 35.00 12 Dec 2012 0.00 2.79 9%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 12 Dec 2012 0.00 1.31 4%

Loan 8262-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
12 Dec 2012 17 Jan 2013 23 Jun 2014 30 Sep 2019 - -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 4.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 12 Dec 2012 0.00 0.00 0%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 4.00 12 Dec 2012 0.00 0.00 0%

 
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