|Project Name||Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Partnerships
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Agricultural policy, institutional and capacity development - Fishery - Forestry - Water-based natural resources management
Energy - Energy sector development and institutional reform
Health - Health sector development and reform
Public sector management - Public administration
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming|
The project seeks to address climate change issues in the countries of Northeast Asia, covering the People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan (JAP), the Republic of Korea (KOR), and Mongolia (MON) through conduct of studies and dialogue,and suggest growth strategies aimed at achieving "green growth" and low carbon societies.
The TA aims to (i) contribute to the regional debate on the economic costs and benefits of unilateral and regional actions on climate change mitigation and adaptation; (ii) raise awareness about the urgency of climate change challenges; and (iii) indirectly support government and private sector actions in the region for green growth and low carbon strategies.
The TA will build on ADB's successful "The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review" and complement ADB's parallel studies of South Asia and the Pacific.
The TA's impact will enhance resilience to climate change risks in Northeast Asia. The outcome of the TA will improve understanding of the economics of climate change to enable policymakers in Northeast Asia to initiate mitigation and adaptation actions.
The TA is divided into four outputs: (1) Current climate change policy and practices, policy gaps, costs, and implementation issues scoped and reviewed (Scoping and Review/Country reports); (2) Climate mitigation and adaptation policies and measures for the region and participating countries formulated (Analysis of Climate Change); (3) climate policy simulation tool (CPST) developed and applied (Climate Policy Simulation); and (4) final results and national and regional policy recommendations finalized and disseminated (Summarized Reporting and Dissemination).
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||Asia and the Pacific are experiencing considerable environmental stress as a consequence of rapid economic growth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated that developing Asia's share of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions increased from less than 9% in 1973 to 29% in 2005, and projected it will rise to 42% in 2030. The effects of climate change are already apparent in Northeast Aisa as demonstrated by rising temperatures. In Mongolia, a steady increase in temperatures has been observed over the past 60 years, with average temperatures rising by 1.8 degrees centigrade. The PRC has experienced continuous warming during the past 50 years. Temperatures in Japan have risen about 1 degree centigrade in the past century. Northeast Asia's vulnerability to climate change will be exacerbated if high carbon economic development continues.|
|Impact||Enhanced resilience to climate change risks in Northeast Asia.|
|Description of Outcome||Improved understanding of the economics of climate change to enable policy makers in Northeast Asia to initiate climate mitigation and adaptation actions.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
Overall progress in implementation has been achieved, aiming at improved understanding of the economics of climate change and guide policymakers in Northeast Asia to initiate climate change mitigation and adapation actions.
The respective country reports were completed by international and national country teams in Japan, Mongolia, Republic of Korea (ROK), and the People's Republic of China (PRC). The PRC country report was published in Chinese.
Discussions on the economics of climate change in the four countries were held in various fora to improve understanding of the issues and solutions.
The 1st Steering Committee (SC) and the 1st Regional Consultation (RC) meetings were held in March 2010 at Seoul, ROK, while the 2nd SC and the 2nd RC meetings were held from 10-12 October 2010 at Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
The 1st national workshops for the 4 participating countries were also held between March-April 2010 in each of the participating countries. The 2nd national workshops in Mongolia and ROK have been concluded in 13 October and 15 October 2010, respectively in each of the participating countries.
The CPST Brainstorming Meeting was conducted in June 2010 at Bangkok, Thailand. International modelers were invited to present the different climate policy packages.
The national workshop in PRC was held on 19 May 2011. The 3rd Steering Committee meeting was held in Beijing on 18 July 2011, followed by the 3rd Regional Consultation meeting. A senior policy dialogue meeting was conducted on 21 July 2011, also in Beijing.
The 4th SC and 4th RC meetings were conducted from 17-18 October 2011 in Tokyo, Japan.
The preliminary results of the project studies were presented at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting at its Conferences of the Parties 17 (COP17) in Durban, South Africa on 6 December 2011. A brochure showcasing the preliminary findings of the studies under the project was published in time for the COP17 event.
The full study/final report under the TA, incorporating the findings from various sectoral reports, was published and disseminated through an international book launch and knowledge sharing workshops held from 17-23 October 2013 in Bejing, Seoul, Tokyo, and Ulaanbaatar. The final report's findings were presented at the the United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change (UNFCC) COP-19 (Nineteenth Conference of Parties) in Warsaw, Poland in November 2013.
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Current climate change policy and practices, policy gaps, costs, and implementation issues scoped and reviewed
2. Climate mitigation and adaptation policies and measures for the region and participating countries formulated
3. CPST developed and applied
4. Final results and national and regional policy recommendations finalized and disseminated
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
Output 1: Scoping and Review/Country Reports
1.1 Final reports for Japan (JAP), Republic of Korea (KOR), Mongolia (MON), and the People's Republic of China (PRC) were completed. The PRC country report was published in Chinese.
Output 2: Analysis of Climate Change
2.1 Output 2 consists of four activities: (i) marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve analysis; (ii) assessment and analysis of future climate change impacts on major sectors at the regional level; (iii) regional modeling of climate change by an integrated assessment model; and (iv) cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation cases.
2.2 MAC curves: MAC curves are showing what carbon reduction measures save the most money. MACC curves were produced for JAP, KOR, and PRC by Mizuho in conjunction with National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan. The MACC curves for KOR and PRC were updated. A MAC curve for MON was prepared for the first time. Country reports were combined into final report. First MAC curve results were presented for the 3rd regional consultation meeting, followed by preliminary results during the 4th regional consultation meeting. The work on MAC curves had been completed and was revised based on comments by ADB staff. The work was peer reviewed and was used for the final study.
2.3 Regional modeling of climate change by an integrated assessment model: The integrated assessment tool used is the Page09 model and ADB staff conducted the analysis. For the 3rd regional consultation meeting, a preliminary version was presented in July 2011. Draft final version was presented at the 4th regional consultation meeting in October 2011. Highlights of analysis were presented at the COP17 meeting in Durban in December 2011. The integrated assessment model, however, took longer to finalize due to added complexities by combing 2 integrated assessment models with the adaptation models (coastal, infrastructure, water, and agriculture. The integrated assessment tool was finalized in October 2012.
2.4 Cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation cases: Work has been completed on the cost of adaptation in (i) infrastructure, (ii) health, (iii) agriculture; and (iv) water. The findings were incorporated into the TA's full study. The report on water was completed and published. Initial results of this component were be presented at the 4th regional consultation meeting. Draft final inputs were used for the COP17 presentation in Durban.
Output 3: Climate Policy Simulation Tool (CPST)
A concept note on the CPST was prepared. Instead of developing the project's own tool, the project now seeks to use existing tools and to partner with respective institutions. The CPST should be a web-based application allowing for data simulations under this TA. The output should be used as a model for other ADB climate change studies covering other regions outside of East Asia. The concept was presented at the 3rd regional consultation meeting. Progress of work was discussed at the 4th regional consultation meeting. A climate policy simulation tool (CPST), which is based on data generated for the TA, was rudimentary being developed and a beta-version website was presented at the at the East Asia Climate Partnership Forum in Seoul, Republic of Korea (9 March 2012). The project website is being used to disseminate project findings.
Output 4: Summarized Reporting and Dissemination
4.1 Output 4 consists of (i) inception report (completed March 2010); (ii) interim report (completed 12 May 2011); (iii) draft final report (completed and undergoing editing), (iv) Durban COP17 presentation on preliminary findings (completed); (v) TA final report and summary final report completed, published and disseminated in October 2013 with summary powerpoint presentation of results at different venues, i.e., Beijing, Seoul, Tokyo, and Ulaanbaatar were conducted; (vi) presentation of findings at the UNFCC COP-19 in Warsaw, Poland in November 2013. The final report received a special award in ADB as a knowledge product.
|Geographical Location||Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and Peoples Republic of China.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||During TA design, consultations were held with the governments of PRC, JAP, KOR, and MON; academe; private sector; development partners; and peer review conducted within ADB.|
|During Project Implementation||Consultations continue with the governments of PRC, JAP, KOR, and MON; academe; private sector; development partners; and within ADB.|
|Consulting Services||Combination of consulting services of both individual and firm.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Brommelhorster, Jorn|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Office of the Director General, EARD|
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue,
Mandaluyong City 1550, Philippines
|Concept Clearance||11 Sep 2009|
|Fact Finding||12 Nov 2009 to 13 Nov 2009|
|Approval||04 Dec 2009|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||16 Jul 2010|
|Last PDS Update||26 Mar 2014|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|04 Dec 2009||-||04 Dec 2009||30 Nov 2011||31 Dec 2013||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|1,000,000.00||800,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||1,800,000.00||04 Dec 2009||1,445,353.49|