This sector loan has been designed to support the Government's Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDP II) during 2003 2009. PEDP II was prepared in consultation with stakeholders through a Government-led participatory process. Results from an indepth evaluation of the First Primary Education Development Program (PEDP I) were incorporated as well as lessons learned from other sectorwide approach programs (SWAPs) in Bangladesh and in the region. PEDP II is an integrated and coordinated program covering the formal primary education subsector. PEDP II will focus on improving the quality of education in primary schools; it will strengthen policy, and organizational and institutional development necessary to support coordination, subsector planning, management, monitoring and evaluation.
students benefiting from new or improved educational facilities
students educated and trained under improved quality assurance systems
teachers trained with quality or competency standards
The results data reported above are limited to ADB's core sectors, as defined under Strategy 2020 and tracked through indicators in the ADB Results Framework. For definitions of results indicators, please see the ADB Results Framework Indicators Definition.
|Project Name||Second Primary Education Development Program (Sector Loan)|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Grant
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Education / Pre-primary and primary
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Gender equity|
|Description||This sector loan has been designed to support the Government's Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDP II) during 2003 2009. PEDP II was prepared in consultation with stakeholders through a Government-led participatory process. Results from an indepth evaluation of the First Primary Education Development Program (PEDP I) were incorporated as well as lessons learned from other sectorwide approach programs (SWAPs) in Bangladesh and in the region. PEDP II is an integrated and coordinated program covering the formal primary education subsector. PEDP II will focus on improving the quality of education in primary schools; it will strengthen policy, and organizational and institutional development necessary to support coordination, subsector planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. PEDP II includes a comprehensive policy and institutional reform framework, a common set of key performance indicators, and a common implementation framework for support from the Government and its development partners. PEDP II has been designed to be a catalyst in achieving holistic, sectorwide planning in the education sector in the long term. PEDP II will support the Government's Education for All (EFA) plans, achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the poverty reduction agenda.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Bangladesh has one of the largest primary education systems in the world. In the year 2001, 17.7 million students were enrolled in over 78,000 primary-level institutions and were taught by more than 320,000 teachers. This represented a 30.8% increase in formal primary education enrollments from the level in 1991. In 2001, the gross enrollment ratio was 97.5% and girls' enrollment was slightly higher than boys'. The overall net enrollment ratio was about 81%.
While access to primary education has been provided, its quality has stagnated. There are several reasons for the poor performance. The overall pupil-teacher ratio is about 55:1, but is 67:1 in Government primary schools (GPS). With the double shift system operating in 90% of primary schools, the pupils-in-class-to-teacher ratio is less than 30:1. However, the double shift system reduces the number of contact hours between pupils and teachers. Contact hours in Bangladesh are approximately 30% below the international average. The dropout rate is high, averaging 33%, due partly to the dire poverty experienced by many families and partly to the perception of many parents and children that schooling is of little value. Average attendance rates are low at 61% overall. Girls' attendance is a little better than boys'.
These constraints mean that many children do not receive an adequate primary education. Indeed, the current completion rate is estimated at only 67%, while no more than 64% of children starting grade 1 reach grade 5 at the expected time. The average time to complete 5 years of primary education is approximately 6.5 years, reflecting low internal efficiency and indicating a significant wastage of scarce resources. Many children perhaps the majority and even those successfully completing grade 5, do not attain acceptable standards of literacy and numeracy, and many lapse into illiteracy once they leave school. Only 5% of grade 5 pupils attain the standards required for the primary scholarship examination.
|Impact||Reduced poverty through universal primary education and sustainable socioeconomic development and equity in Bangladesh' society as envisaged in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)|
|Description of Outcome||To provide quality primary education to all eligible children in Bangladesh|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Project is completed, Project Completion Report is issued and project is rated Satisfactory. PCR can be downloaded from ADB website|
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Quality Improvement through Organizational Development and Capacity Building
1.1 Enhance the capacity of MOPME and Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) and affiliated institutions such as NAPE and NCTB and field offices to ensure quality and equitable provision of primary education
1.2 Enhance the capacity of EMIS to support monitoring and evaluation (M&E) functions
2. Quality Improvement in Schools and Classrooms
2.1 Enhance and improve the field-level capacity of school organizations and management at the local level
2.2 Improve the physical and professional capacity of Primary Education Teacher Training Institutes (PTIs), URCs and school sub clusters to deliver quality primary teacher training
2.3 Improve the quality of head teachers
2.4 Enhance the quality of teachers and of teaching in primary schools through new job descriptions and improved career development plans
2.5 Enhance the provision and quality of learning resources
2.6 Promote and facilitate greater community participation and support for education improvement in Bangladesh primary schools, through SMCs, etc.
3. Quality improvement through infrastructure development
3.1 Provide improved levels of infrastructure, facilities and equipment to encourage and facilitate improved and equitable access for all children, leading to improved student achievement
4. Improved access to quality education especially for poorest and socially excluded
4.1 Enhance and institutionalise the capacity of DPE at the centre and in the districts to meet the needs of poor children and children with special requirements
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||Project completed 2011 and is financially closed. Results of the project can be viewed from the PCR.|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The design, extension, upgrading, renovation and operations of facilities under the Program followed the Borrower's environmental requirements, the Bank's environmental guidelines for Selected Infrastructure Development Projects, and other relevant Bank guidelines on environment.|
Classrooms will be expanded in the existing compound. In cases where a new school is required, the school will be built on land contributed by the community. Contributing land for a school has been a community practice in Bangladesh.
While Bangladesh is a largely monoculture society, there is a indigenous people population living largely in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) and in parts of Sylhet and northern Bangladesh. PEDP I included a number of initiatives designed to increase school participation among the tribal communities in CHT. However, due to political and other factors, little of this program has been implemented. PEDP II will take initiatives to accelerate implementation in CHT. In addition, the PEDP II will take initiatives to develop a mechanism for consultation with indigenous people communities in CHT, Sylhet, Mymenshing and northern parts of Bangladesh on strategies for increasing access to education. These will include facilitating the process for implementing the sections of Rangamati Declaration on Education pertaining to primary education; in constructing new schools and classrooms, priority will be given to remote areas, underserved, underschooled areas of CHT, and areas with indigenous people in other districts; exception should be made in the criterion of a no school within 2 km in the underserved CHT; flexibility in qualification in recruiting teachers; recruiting teachers from the respective indigenous people groups; recruiting female teachers; teaching resources and medium of instruction in local languages for 1-2 grades; recruiting community volunteers to assist teachers in local language.
The PEDP II will establish linkages with the Integrated Social Development Program (ISDP) of United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) and Children's Opportunities for Learning Enhanced 2-program (CHOLEN2) of CARE. The Para Kendra (preprimary) school under ISDP could be upgraded to 2 grades in remote areas having no primary school. The Program will develop specific programs to address the needs of disadvantaged children: disabled children, refugee children, religious minorities and working children.
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||The plan of PEDP II was prepared in discussion with various stakeholders such as the government, training institutes, school management, teachers, and development partners.|
|During Project Implementation||
To enhance the participation of parents and the community during implementation of PEDP II, emphasis will be on capacity building and active involvement of the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and the School Management Committee (SMC) in school management and planning. In addition, the role of local government (Union Parishad) in the local-level education system will be strengthened by forming an education committee at the Union Parishad level. At present the functions of SMC and PTA are limited to occasional meetings. The roles of these committees are not properly understood and or accepted in the school management system. The PEDP II will restructure and strengthen the SMC and PTA to increase accountability of teachers, to improve attendance
and lower the dropout rate.
Consulting services are required for program coordination and technical inputs. The consulting services will be recruited in packages. International firms, in association with domestic firms, will be engaged to provide the required consulting services.
All consultants financed from the ADB sector loan, and from co-financed pool of funds under ADB administration, will be selected and engaged during implementation in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants, and other arrangements satisfactory to ADB for engaging national consultants. A total input of about 600 person-months of international and 1,300 person-months of national consulting services is expected. Indicative contract packages of consulting services will be finalized during appraisal.
|Procurement||Vehicles, equipment, materials were procured by international competitive bidding, and as appropriate, through local competitive bidding. Civil works procured through local competitive bidding procedure. Details for procurement for the first year of implementation was finalized during appraisal. Final details for procurement scheduled to later years were determined during program implementation, as appropriate.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Rahman, S.M. Ebadur|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Bangladesh Resident Mission|
Directorate of Primary Education
Mr. Shyamal Kanti Ghosh
Mirpur-2, Dhaka 1216
|Concept Clearance||07 Mar 2000|
|Fact Finding||22 Mar 2000 to 22 Mar 2000|
|MRM||28 Mar 2003|
|Approval||03 Nov 2003|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||02 Nov 2006|
|Last PDS Update||25 Sep 2016|
|Financing Plan||Grant Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||419.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|03 Nov 2003||20 Jan 2004||19 Apr 2004||30 Jun 2010||31 Dec 2011||19 Jul 2012|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||250.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||100.00||03 Nov 2003||107.63||0.00||98%|
|Cofinancing||150.00||03 Nov 2003||109.33||0.00||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Second Primary Education Development Program||Project/Program Completion Reports||Sep 2013|
|Second Primary Education Development Program (Sector Loan)||Loan Change in Scope, Amount, and Implementation Arrangements||Dec 2008|
|Second Primary Education Development Program (Sector Loan)||Reports and Recommendations of the President||Oct 2003|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Bangladesh: Second Primary Education Development Program||Validations of Project Completion Reports||Dec 2015|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Bangladesh: Second Primary Education Development Program||Papers and Briefs||Oct 2011|
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
Transforming Bangladesh Primary EducationNew teaching methods, increased student participation, and reward schemes for parents are helping Bangladesh modernize its vast primary education sector.
Improving Bangladesh's Primary EducationDespite impressive enrollment rates of around 98%, primary education in Bangladesh is hampered by low levels of teacher-pupil interaction, poor teacher training, and high student dropout rates. ADB is working with the government to step up the quality of primary education through the $1.1 billion Second Primary Education Development Program, which began in 2004.
Bangladesh: Keeping Education's PromiseBangladesh has high primary school enrollment rates and equally high drop out rates for older students. A revitalization of the country's education system aims to keep students in school. Syedpur, Bangladesh - "I want to be a teacher when I grow older and help poor and sick people," says Devasmita Sarkar, a lively 10-year-old girl who attends a primary school in northwestern Bangladesh.
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