Mongolia: Community-Driven Development for Urban Poor in Ger Areas (formerly Community-Led Infrastructure Development of Urban Poor in Informal Settlement Areas

Sovereign Project | 37697-022

The Asian Development Bank is working with Mongolia to bring clean water to the country’s traditional tent communities. The project is working to make more than 290,000 people healthier and more comfortable due to clean water and modern sewer systems, and improved schools. 

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Pochard, Laurence M.
    East Asia Department
    Request for information
  • Country
  • Modality
    • Grant
  • Sector
    • Multisector
Project Name Community-Driven Development for Urban Poor in Ger Areas (formerly Community-Led Infrastructure Development of Urban Poor in Informal Settlement Areas
Project Number 37697-022
Country Mongolia
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 9106-MON: Community-Driven Development for Urban Poor in Ger Areas (formerly Community-Led Infrastructure Development of Urban Poor in Informal Settlement Areas [Ger Areas])
Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction US$ 1.50 million
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Sector / Subsector

Multisector / Multisector

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Gender equity

The objective of the Project is to empower local communities through increased participation in local governance and involvement in the design, implementation, and management of community demand-driven infrastructure and income generating projects in selected ger areas.

The project has three components:

(i) Establishment and strengthening the capacity of local community-based organizations (CBOs) to (a) participate in local planning and managing community-led infrastructure development; (b) engage in dialogue with local authorities to improve basic services in ger areas; and (c) monitor service delivery of basic services such as water, solid waste, and sanitation.

(ii) Provision of sub-grant for community-led initiatives for basic infrastructure development and small business development through participatory planning process; and

(iii) Provision of project management support and impact evaluation.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

The Project adopts a new and innovative approach to the development of ger area communities. Rather than using a top-down planning model, communities themselves will remain firmly in the driver's seat, making decisions, administering funds and managing implementation of their priority investments. The Project serves as a facilitator providing not just funds but also technical support and guidance to the community. It will pilot a decentralized, demand-driven _open menu_ approach to community infrastructure development that has not previously been implemented in Mongolia. The Project will introduce:

" an open menu for selection of community infrastructure subproject activities;

" evaluation of community subproject proposals based on the level of community-wide benefits, community commitment and pledged contributions (cash and in-kind) from the local government and community;

" community management of development resources, including community contracting;

" arrangements to ensure full community participation and transparency; and

" enhancement of the community mobilization and facilitation process.

Impact Improved quality of life of poor people in ger area of Bayankhongor, Choir, and Erdenet.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Empowered local communities in ger areas of Bayankhongor, Choir, and Erdenet.
Progress Toward Outcome

Overall implementation of the Project is satisfactory. The local governments in Erdenet, Bayanhongor and Choyr support project activities and the project team. Communities are increasingly participating in discussions of their problems and development priorities, and are initiating activities to improve their livelihoods with support from the Project. As the community mobilization process is being completed, the number and scale of on-going and proposed subprojects steadily increasing.

By the project intervention various sustainable communities have been formed in the target sites, especially the new ger settlement in Bayankhongor aimag shall be highlighted. The establishment of the CBOs in each bag is one important part of the community strengthening process. Once the community institutionalizes, it facilitates more community development activities and provides more opportunity to cooperate with the different stakeholders. In accordance to the evaluation matrix, 78,6% of the SPG, SG and CBO-members are highly satisfied with the project implementation regarding an improved livelihood and their involvement in the project; 13,9% indicate a medium level of satisfaction and 7% are only partly satisfied.

Besides working together successfully and solve common problems, an increased participation in local decision-making processes is the second facet of empowerment. Being a community member improved the residents' capacity to cooperate with local authorities.

A third aspect of empowerment is the personal facet: Community members gained more self confidence, shared responsibilities and besides specific knowledge regarding their subprojects, they have learned to work in a team.

Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Training and capacity building activities are successfully designed and implemented.

Savings groups and CBOs are formed on a voluntary basis.

Community groups prepare subproject proposals that are technically sound and respond to the demands of the community.

Community groups successfully implement subprojects.

Transparency and accountability mechanisms are in place and fully operational.

Information and education strategy is designed and implemented.

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

In total 21,021 households live in the project target areas. During the first and second phase of the project implementation, the project flyers informing about the project and meetings were distributed to every household in the ger area. However, during the phase three the main attention was paid to the mobilizing established subproject groups, CBOs, and associations.

Delivering the project flyers to household to household was one of the efficient approaches employed by the project team for community mobilization. Additionally, delivering the project information to each household ensured those women, disabled, elders and other marginalized groups to have equal access to the project.

In total 38,093 project flyers have been distributed to the ger area households and have been invited for first meetings (as in the second phase another mobilization activity commenced, many households received flyers twice).

In total 35.358 inhabitants of project targeted ger areas have participated in 4 stages of meetings and 14 types of trainings during project implementation.

As a result of the seminars and workshops, the communities gained knowledge about developing proposals, conducting surveys, introducing initiative and appealing community, resolving conflicts and cooperating with each other. Moreover, they able to reveal and and develop their internal resources. Therefore, community' self and mutual confidence regarding the cooperation with the local governments has increased vastly.

PIU and LPIU organized _Participatory planning_, _Participatory Planning in the Context of a Community-Driven Development Approach_, Transect walks and Round table discussions with local government administrators, specialists and inspection agency specialists seven times and 216 people attended these seminars and workshops. Therefore local administrators and specialts realized advantages of community-initiated and implemented activities and the success of their engagement will depend on community involvement. Moreover they gained knowledge about how to increase community involvement

In total, 321 SP concepts including 48 CBO-projects prepared by communities and approved by the subproject committee (SPC) since the project commencement.

During the development of those subproject documents, community had the possibility to cooperate with engineers and architects to follow national standards.

During the project implementation period, in total 314 subprojects have been implemented in the three target areas. Out of them, 50 income generating category, 21 livelihood improvement, 112 projects aimed on an improved living environment. 131 bigger infrastucture (68) subprojects and social services (63) subprojects have been implemented by SPGs and CBOs.

175 subproject groups have been established in the three targeted ger area since 2008. After completion of the project PIU staffs evaluated 175 SPGs and 19 CBOs according to seven criteria including the communities' opinions following the participatory approach.

Very good SPG and CBO 67

Good 72

Deficient 55

2081 members of 175 groups have been involved actively in the project implementation and over 60,000 households have benefited directly or indirectly from the project

No written complaints were received during the project implementation.

The highlighting success of the project was transparency, the local communities highly appreciated its transparent and clear process of subprojects monitoring by the community members. In accordance to the implementing model of the project, the community groups initiate the projects and make a proposal by themselves and implement. All these processes have been controlled by the communities themselves. In other words the project provided an opportunity for the community members to learn transparency by doing. (community empowerment assessment report)

The progress reports of the project clearly indicate that the activities were implemented as scheduled. However due to rare complications during the procedure, some small infrastructure projects have been slightly delayed. Generally the project conducted activities as it was planned.

Aiming at sharing information and experience with community and local administrators, four series of newsletter _Information on ger area_ have been published and distributed to the three targeted ger area residents and local administrators. Additionally a documentary film _Our participation will change everything_ has been produced and broadcasted twice by Mongolian National Broadcasting television.

PIU organized three roundtable discussion with other CDD projects and programs funded by donors and state budget to share experiences.

24 times TV broadcastings and newsletter articles have been produced locally in order to provide information of project activity to local administration and informal institutions.

The PIU organized a national conference on _Community Driven-Development_ involving representatives from international organizations, projects, programs, delegates of all aimag Civil Representative Councils and soum governance administration on 9th of September, 2011 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in order to share information and practice and disseminate community-driven development approach.

Community development advisor Anna Kleinschroth developed a report about water kiosk construction based on Public Private Partnership to GIZ.

Maintaining an information board is one method of ensuring transparency. Within the project frame, all subproject groups and CBOs updated their information boards continuously and exposed them during public events. It has been a good way to ensure transparency within community and local administration.

Geographical Location
Safeguard Categories
Environment C
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design The project has been designed through participatory process involving stakeholders, particularly the poor. The project assists the community to establish community-based organizations (CBOs).
During Project Implementation The CBOs will design, implement and monitor the community-led infrastructure development.
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

3 person months of international and 145 person months of national consultants will be recruited in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants.

The experts required are: (i) project manager (ii) financial manager, (iii) engineer, (iv) community mobilizers, (v) community development specialist, (vi) local NGOs for community mobilization and capacity building, (vii) monitoring and evaluation specialist, (viii) auditor, and (ix) local NGO for external monitoring and impact evaluation.

Procurement Procurement of goods and related services will be conducted in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines. Goods and related services to cost the equivalent of $100,000 or less will be procured using shopping procedure. Goods, services and civil works with estimated value of $500,000 or less will be procured using national competitive bidding.
Responsible ADB Officer Pochard, Laurence M.
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Mongolia Resident Mission
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Construction and Urban Development
Mr. J. Bat-Erdene
Ulaanbaatar 211238, Barilgachdyn talbai 3
Ministry of Roads, Transportation, Construction and Urban Development
Mr. J. Bat-Erdene
Ulaanbaatar 211238, Barilgachdyn talbai 3
Ministry of Roads, Transportation, Construction and Urban Development
15170 Barilgachdyn Talbai
3 Chingeltei District
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Concept Clearance 14 Oct 2005
Fact Finding 05 Jun 2006 to 23 Jun 2006
Approval 02 Mar 2007
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 23 Jan 2007
Last PDS Update 14 Dec 2011

Grant 9106-MON

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
02 Mar 2007 14 May 2007 14 May 2007 30 Jun 2011 30 Sep 2011 09 Jul 2012
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 1.50 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 18 Nov 2021 0.00 1.48 99%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 1.50 18 Nov 2021 0.00 1.48 99%

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

None currently available.

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.

The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

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