The Investment Program is designed to improve environmental quality and living conditions in urban areas through the provision of basic urban services. Initial environmental examinations (IEEs) conducted for the Investment Program show that net subproject environmental benefits are positive and extensive, and include (i) reduced pollution of water resources due to discharge of untreated sewage and indiscriminate solid-waste disposal from sewerage and sewage treatment, and municipal solid-waste management investments; (ii) increased availability of adequate potable water at appropriate pressure from water supply subprojects; (iii) better public health, particularly a reduction in waterborne and infectious diseases through water supply, sewerage and sewage treatment, and a municipal solid-waste management investments; (iv) improved aesthetics from the improvement of urban roads, sewerage and sewage treatment, and municipal solid-waste management works; (v) reduced exposure to suspended particulates and noise pollution; and (vi) increased pedestrian safety through urban roads and traffic management. Potential negative environmental impacts are mostly localized and temporary, and are mostly related to dust, noise, and access disruptions due to construction activities and construction-related waste disposal. These impacts can largely be avoided through proper subproject design (particularly in siting), or mitigated through proper mitigation measures and environmental management.
Environmental subproject selection guidelines further ensure that the Investment Program will not have significant negative environmental impacts. Impacts that are potentially significant and permanent in nature have been identified, and environmental subproject selection guidelines will not allow subprojects with such impacts. To ensure compliance with Government and ADB policies, guidelines, and requirements, an environmental assessment and review framework to guide the implementation of future subprojects has been developed.
||The Investment Program will minimize resettlement impacts by prioritizing rehabilitation and optimization work within existing facilities. New construction is proposed on vacant government land where feasible. Tranche 1 will not require any land acquisition. The main resettlement impacts will be due to rehabilitation and laying of pipe networks, and these impacts are temporary in nature. A short resettlement plan has been prepared to address the resettlement need. Resettlement impacts are to be further minimized through careful adjustment of the alignment during detailed design and subproject implementation. To ensure compliance with Government and ADB policies and requirements on involuntary resettlement, a resettlement framework was prepared on the basis of the Government's Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (LAA, amended in 1984) and the National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007 (NRRP); and ADB's Policy on Involuntary Resettlement Policy. The resettlement framework will guide the acquisition (if required), compensation, and other assistance measures for affected persons. Resettlement plans will be prepared for subprojects based on the resettlement framework. Subprojects with significant impacts require full resettlement plans, while subprojects with insignificant impacts will require short resettlement plans. Resettlement plans will ensure that socioeconomic conditions and the needs and priorities of vulnerable groups are identified, and that the process of land acquisition and resettlement does not disadvantage vulnerable groups. In tranche 1 Investment Program towns, initial screening for impact on indigenous peoples show that there will be no impacts. The Investment Program will result in environmental and public health benefits to the whole program population. The likelihood of subprojects affecting indigenous peoples is small and likely impacts are addressed by resettlement plans.