The Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM) brings together Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan supported by the international donor community to work towards sustainable land management, reverse land degradation, and adapt to climate change. CACILM's goal is the restoration, maintenance, and enhancement of the productive functions of the land in Central Asia, leading to improved economic and social well being of those who depend on these resources while preserving the ecological functions of the land. CACILM is being implemented in a mutlicountry framework which includes a 10-year program of activities in each country based on national programming frameworks
|Project Name||Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM) Multicountry Partnership Framework Support Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Land-based natural resources management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||No gender elements|
|Description||The Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM) brings together Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan supported by the international donor community to work towards sustainable land management, reverse land degradation, and adapt to climate change. CACILM's goal is the restoration, maintenance, and enhancement of the productive functions of the land in Central Asia, leading to improved economic and social well being of those who depend on these resources while preserving the ecological functions of the land. CACILM is being implemented in a mutlicountry framework which includes a 10-year program of activities in each country based on national programming frameworks|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Land degradation' is a serious economic, social, and environmental problem in the transition economies of the Central Asian Countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan (CACs). It directly affects the livelihood of the rural population by reducing the productivity of land resources and adversely affecting the stability, functions of, and services derived from natural systems. Agricultural yields are reported to have declined by 20-30% across the region since these countries achieved independence over a decade ago, causing annual losses of agricultural production as much as $2 billion. The causes of land degradation are multiple, complex, and vary across these countries, but are largely attributable to the abuse and over-exploitation of the natural resource base, particularly through inappropriate and unsustainable agricultural practices, overgrazing, deforestation, forest degradation, and natural disasters.
The principal forms and causes of- land degradation currently experienced across the CACs include (1) erosion, salinization and water logging; (ii) deteriorating fertility of pasture land; (iii) decrease in fertility of the arable drylands of the steppes; (iv) decreased area and productivity of forests; (v) on-site and off-site impacts of mining operations; (vi) exacerbated risks from landslides and flooding due to poor watershed management; (Vii) reduced stability and functioning of desert, mountain, wetland, and riparian ecosystems; and (viii) inadequate and incorrect assessment and monitoring of land degradation. Appendix 1 provides further information on the state of land degradation in each country.
Efforts to address land degradation have generally had limited success due to their focus on technical solutions; the lack of coordination across agencies; inadequate policy, legislation, regulation and incentives for sustainable development; and the relatively inadequate attention to economic and social implications and the incidence of poverty. The implementation of measures to control and reverse land degradation through more comprehensive and integrated approaches to sustainable land management would generate multiple benefits at local, national, and global levels.
In recognition of the challenges inherent to implementation of sustainable land management initiatives, the Global Mechanism of the UNCCD (GM) spearheaded the formulation of the Strategic Partnership for UNCCD Implementation in CARs (SPA) bringing together the GM; Asian Development Bank (ADB), through its Regional Technical Assistance on Combating Desertification in Asia; the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); the CCD Project of GTZ (Germany); the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC); the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); and the International Center for Agricultural Research in DrylaethAreas (ICARDA). Among several activities being undertaken by the SPA, a partnership building forum was convened in mid-2003 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan bringing together relevant national actors and donor agencies to identify the challenges and opportunities for addressing land degradation issues. The two main outcomes of the forum were preparation of the Tashkent Joint Platform of Action for CCD Implementation and the call for the establishment in each CAR of a Working Group on Partnership Development for COD Implementation. The latter Working Groups have been established in all of the CARs except Turkmenistan and comprise a wide range of national actors, including line ministries, civil society organizations, as well as donor agencies.
The involvement of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through its Operational Program on Sustainable Land Management (OP15) is expected to serve an important catalytic role in mobilizing political will and financial resources needed to effectively address these problems and to achieve incremental global benefits.
Given the region's high vulnerability to land degradation and the progress already made in partnership formation with SPA support, the CARs are well positioned to cooperate with GEF's OP15 in developing an initiative to further promote measures to address land degradation in the region. Such an initiative would support the mainstreaming of sustainable land management into national development planning processes, 'encourage the adoption of integrated natural resource management, build synergies between the environment and; other sectors of the economy, and consolidate and coordinate external financing while reducing transaction costs through the streamlining of partner's project cycle procedures, among other activities.
|Impact||Restoration, maintenance and enhancement of the prodcutive functions of land in Central Asia to improve functions of land in Central Asia to imrpove the economic and social well-being of those who depend on these resources, while preserving the environmental functions of these lands in the spirit of UNCCD|
|Description of Outcome||
Improved capacity of institutions in Central Asia to adopt integrated land-use planning and management
Long-term, sustained, and harmonized commitments of financial and human resources through maintreaming of SLM in donor programs for Central Asia
|Progress Toward Outcome||
CACILM Multicountry Partnership has added value through the enhanced benefits of regional cooperation.
CACILM Partnerships committed to support CACILM till 2013.
|Description of Project Outputs||
Efficient and effective coordination of the implementation CACILM Multicountry Partnership Framework
Efficient and effective coordination of the implementation of NPFs in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajkistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
SLMIS designed, developed, and operated
Sustainable land management research designed and implemented
Knowledge management system estbalished
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
Output 1. (a) The Multicountry Secretariat (MSEC) was staff by experienced consultants who performed well and in line with their Terms of Reference. MSEC provided training and support to Staff of the five National Secretariats (NSEC). (b) The five NSECs were staffed by competent professionals who performed well in being the technical secretariats for the respective Governments through the NCCs (National Coordination Councils) on land and water issues. The selection of the staff and particularly the head, was based on their administrative capabilities and experience as well as networks in Government and the civil administration was very appropriate except in Tajikistan where an academic was the head which led to poor Tajikistan NSEC performance. (c) The CACILM NCC in each CAC performed well. (d) The CACILM Steering Committee, as the governing body with membership of senior representatives of each of KAZ, KGZ,TAJ, TKM and UZB and the development partners conducted 4 meetings , reviewed the progress of CACILM, provided guidance on the planning and implementation of CACILM activities. Project monitoring and evaluation system were designed and implemented.
Output 2. NPFs were prepared in each of the five CACs with the assistance of their respective NSEC and oversight of MSEC. These are the guides for the implementation of SLM activities for the 10-year duration of CACILM. The NPFs were prepared well and have been very useful and been updated recently. The NPF has taken into consideration country specific as well as broader contexts that includes natural as well as anthropogenic causes for land degradation and has come up with prioritized programs of projects and technical assistance.
Output 3. (i) Land degradation baseline information established; (ii) Compilation of all available information on land degradation (iii) Determined methodology for establishing baseline information which is a combination of field survey, remote sensing, and expert opinion; (iv) baseline on land degradation has now been established using coarse and mid-resolution satellite imageries combined with ground data. This baseline includes socio-economic data (such as demographic, livestock, crop yield, pastureland biomass, etc) and detailed (250m, some are at 30m) spatial characterization of land degradation in terms of: 1.) land cover (over 90% overall accuracy for 21 classes); 2). Land Productivity: irrigated and rainfed cropland, and pastureland. 3). Vegetation/crop development in terms of 8 phenological features derived from bi-weekly MODIS NDVI time series of 2008;
4). Grazing gradients and degraded areas of pasture/rangeland; 5). Irrigated croplands - area and rate of land abandonment for selected irrigated areas at rayon level derived from Landsat images, cropping patterns and dominant crops for all irrigated
Output 4. The Sustainable Land Management-Research was designed and implemented in the 5 CACs. (i) Research Prospectus developed; (ii) Research covering rainfed and irrigated agriculture, mountain areas and rangeland/pastures -12 research sites (KAZ, KGZ, TAJ, TKM, UZB)- sustainable land management options were tested:
(a) Laser assisted land leveling, irrigation with plastic chutes and conjunctive use of drainage and irrigation water were tested and showed to increase productivity by 15-25% in Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan;
(b) Raised-bed seeding improved seed germination rates, halved (wheat and rice) seeding rates, reduced water use by 10% and allowed for diversifying the cropping geometry in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan
(c) Intercropping of cotton and legumes, maize with legumes, or sainfoin with barley proved highly profitable for farmers in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
(d) Planting with standing stubble, mulch, residues on sloped land, terraces reduced soil erosion, increased soil moisture content on topsoil;
(e) Rangeland productivity and fodder availability could be increased by planting salt tolerable fodder crops such as Alfalfa, Sudan grass, titicale, sorghum, and licorice;
(f) Saxual and other halophyte species are highly suitable for rangeland
(iii) Results demonstrated that adoption of improved technologies of soil and water management could enhance productivity, resulting in higher rural incomes and household food security, contribute to the conservation of natural resources and the sustainability of agricultural production
(iv) Using GIS-based similarity analyses, environments similar to SLMR project sites could be identified for potentially out scaling of developed technologies in the next Phase
Output 5. The SLM-Knowledge Management system was designed and implemented. (i) Published Central Asia Atlas of Natural Resources that showcase the beauty and rich natural resources of Central Asia , an eye opener to those not so familiar to the Region; (ii) Prepared Report on Economic Analysis of Sustainable Land Management Options for Central Asia which provided analysis of use of fertilizer in irrigated crop production; minimum tillage in irrigated and rainfed production; migratory vs. secondary grazing and improved supplemental feeding of livestocks using feed blocks. The study recommends; (a) expanding investments in applied research and demonstration activities related to sustainable land and water management in a wide range of contexts to identify what works where; (b) Identify domains in which land and water management options are privately and socially profitable and the key constraints inhibiting adoption of these options in these contexts; (c) Identify and avoid promoting socially unprofitable land and water management options, and one-size-fits-all approaches to technology development, dissemination and promotion; (d) CACILM website operational; (e)CACILM Information materials disseminated in 5 CACs
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Consultation workshops in each of the 5 Central Asian countries were conducted during design phase.|
|During Project Implementation||Steering committee meetings were conducted that include participation of representatives from the Government of the 5 CACs and international development partners.|
|Consulting Services||A CACILM secretariat will be created to support the CACILM Steering Committee. The CACILM secretariat will require the services of international consultants (32 person months) and national consultants (112 person months). Consultants will be engaged individually by ADB in accordance with the Guidelines for the Use of Consultants by the Asian Development Bank and Its Borrowers, and other arrangements satisfactory to ADB for the recruitment of local consultants. Equipment for the CACILM secretariat and the national secretariat offices will be procured according to ADB Procurement Guidelines.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Tambunan, Binsar P.|
|Responsible ADB Department||Central and West Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, CWRD|
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue,
Mandaluyong City 1550, Philippines
|Concept Clearance||07 Nov 2005|
|Fact Finding||10 Mar 2004 to 24 Mar 2004|
|Approval||24 Nov 2006|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||10 Aug 2006|
|Last PDS Update||07 Apr 2011|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|24 Nov 2006||-||24 Nov 2006||31 Dec 2008||30 Jun 2010||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|800,000.00||3,225,000.00||500,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||4,525,000.00||24 Nov 2006||3,444,323.78|
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