||The Project's environmental impact and benefits are evaluated in general terms and cumulatively for the Master Plan as a whole. The environmental assessments of individual core subprojects provide a more detailed assessment of environmental benefits and impacts at the subproject level. A summary environmental impact assessment (SEIA) covering the core subprojects was categorized as environmental category A and a summary initial environmental examination (SIEE) covering the remaining three core subprojects were prepared in accordance with the PRC's environmental assessment technical guidelines and ADB's Environment Policy. The soil and water conservation activities of the Project provide the most obvious and direct environmental benefits. For the other activities, especially the construction of reservoirs, there is a trade-off between development and livelihood benefits, and adverse environmental impacts, which will occur while under construction and during operation of the subproject facilities. However, each subproject environmental assessment concludes that the overall balance is favorable, and that the adverse environmental impacts are manageable with appropriate mitigation measures that have been identified and incorporated in the subprojects' environmental management plan (EMP). The environmental assessment of noncore subprojects to be prepared and implemented under the Project will be undertaken in accordance with the provisions of the EARF that have been agreed with the EA.
Resettlement impacts were assessed in detail for the six core subprojects, and the selected noncore subprojects were screened for potential impacts, of which 53 subprojects* may involve land acquisition and resettlement. For the entire Project, it is estimated that about 6,300 persons* will be affected by land loss; and about 12,800 mu of land* will be acquired for the Project, of which about 5,900 mu (46%)* is cultivated land. The houses of about 1,200 persons* will have to be relocated. For the core subprojects, the resettlement impacts are relatively small except for the Yudongxia reservoir subproject. The Guiyang PMO has prepared and ADB has approved the resettlement plan for the Yudongxia subproject and three resettlement plans for the Jinlong, Liaojiuzhai, and Wudang subprojects. No resettlement plans are required for the other two core subprojects, as these do not involve land acquisition or involuntary resettlement. Based on satisfactory resettlement experience in Guizhou Province, the EA and local governments were assessed to have the capacity to manage resettlement impacts properly. The IAs will fund the resettlement costs according to the standards set out in the resettlement plans, based on national policies and local regulations. Entitlements will be provided to affected persons before demolition and ground leveling commence, and before any loss of land. A resettlement information booklet was distributed to those affected through village offices, and the resettlement plans for the four core subprojects were made available at the village offices.
Compensation for land acquisition, residential housing, and nonresidential housing will be paid to all users regardless of whether titled or not. For land acquisition, compensation includes land compensation, resettlement subsidy, and compensation for young crops. The land compensation will be paid to the affected village and/or affected persons and the resettlement subsidy and other compensation for individual asset loss will be paid to the affected persons. For small businesses and housing demolition, compensation will be paid directly to owners in cash according to the appraised value of the land and fixed property assets. Income losses resulting from reduced production/sales and wages caused by the Project will be assessed and compensated to affected persons in cash.
For subsequent noncore subprojects, resettlement plans will be prepared based on the detailed engineering designs and resettlement impact surveys. A resettlement framework providing procedural guidelines for the EA and IAs to follow has been agreed upon between GMG and ADB. The PMO, assisted by the IAs, will be responsible for monitoring resettlement plan implementation and submitting progress reports to ADB. A regular reporting system will be established to ensure that key resettlement activities are implemented on schedule. The PMO will also engage a domestic institute to conduct independent monitoring and evaluation of resettlement implementation and report progress semi-annually, to evaluate results through annual survey updates and reports for 2 years after completion of resettlement. Monitoring and evaluation reports will be submitted to Guiyang PMO and ADB for review and follow up action, if required.
* These figures will change since some indicative noncore subprojects will be removed from the project and some new noncore subprojects will be added to the project.
||EMDPs have been prepared for four of the core subprojects. About 200 ethnic minority persons in each of these four core subprojects will have their livelihoods affected by the Project, although the overall impact of the Project will be beneficial to the ethnic minority communities as a result of improved water supplies and consequential livelihood benefits. Ethnic minority villages will be specifically targeted for the provision of small water storage tanks, and special provisions will be made in resettlement plans, where construction activity has a serious impact on ethnic minority communities. An ethnic minorities development framework (EMDF) for the subsequent noncore subprojects has also been prepared. The PMO, assisted by the IAs, will be responsible for preparing the EMDPs for the noncore subprojects, as required, and monitoring the implementation of all EMDPs.
|During Project Design
||Primary stakeholders include rural and urban households using domestic water, irrigators, and water-using enterprises, as well as those affected by land acquisition and resettlement. Secondary stakeholders include village councils, and government units at township level and above, particularly water resources bureaus. The Project supports integrated water resources management (IWRM), which emphasizes involvement of stakeholders in improving governance and management of water resources.
Two rounds of public consultation roundtables were held during the preparation of feasibility studies reports (FSRs) for each subproject. For each subproject with irrigation, a further consultation will be held with irrigator representatives to participate in the preliminary and detailed design, form a water users association (WUA), and prepare for implementation of operation and maintenance where the WUA will have primary responsibility for irrigation management. Public consultation meetings and stakeholder panels will provide forums for participation in multipurpose reservoir management and river sub-basin planning. Where appropriate, community-managed modalities will be used for implementation of irrigation canal system (particularly tertiary canals) and small tank construction. The project preparatory technical assistance (TA) conducted urban and rural household surveys and interviews, including key informant interviews and female and male focus group discussions.