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India: Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1

Sovereign (Public) Project | 40156-023 Status: Closed

ADB is helping India protect coastline affected by severe erosion. The project will reduce coastal erosion and instability in the western coastal states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. It will focus on solutions that protect the coastal environment, as well as support private sector and community involvement in protection and management activities.

 
Project Name Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1
Project Number 40156-023
Country India
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Loan 2679-IND: MFF - Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1
Ordinary capital resources US$ 51.56 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Water-based natural resources management

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Some gender elements
Description

The investment program will address immediate coastal protection needs and coastal instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions, with a focus on softer options such as artificial reefs, beach nourishments, and dune management in the states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. It will also develop institutional capacities to meet the long-term needs of sustainable coastal protection and management, and support initiatives to increase the participation of the private sector and communities in coastal protection and management.

The impact of the investment program will be improved income and reduced poverty of the coastal communities in the subproject areas of the coastal states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.

The outcome of the investment program will be protected and managed shorelines in the three states , meeting the needs of stakeholders and protecting the environment

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Coastal erosion is responsible for loss of land, houses, infrastructure, and business opportunities; and poses a high risk to human well-being, economic development, and ecological integrity. Every year, 400 hectares of land, 75,000 hectares of crop areas, and 34,000 residential houses and/or industrial establishments are lost or damaged by coastal erosion. The impact will be much more extensive and widespread in the coming years, as the coastline is increasingly subject to a wide range of economic developments, many of which create conflicts and pressures on the already disturbed natural coastal environments. The rural poor coastal communities are the most vulnerable to the impacts of erosion and poor coastal management. Many of the rapidly growing Indian urban areas are also vulnerable to coastal erosion; Mumbai, for example, incurs a cost of about $2.5 million per km on capital works alone to protect some of its prime waterfront property.

The coastal protection strategy in India aims at protecting the land and overall economic growth. Protecting the beach and the environment are relatively new concepts. The most frequently applied methods for coastal protection have been through the use of hard structures, such as seawalls or groins. Long-term plans to manage coastal erosion are available. However, resource constraints result in the measures being undertaken to target the more vulnerable sections of the coasts and as local emergency measures. Such interventions provide mostly land protection. Seawalls and groins continue to be preferred measures though they do not necessarily address the root cause of the problem. As the pressure on the coastal zone keeps expanding because of human-induced activities as well as relative sea level rise, there is an urgent need to find sustainable solutions for coastal protection.

Continuing coastal erosion worldwide is leading to the development and installation of innovative techniques for effective and unobtrusive shoreline and near shore control. There are increasing examples of replacement or modification of traditional hard rock protection with softer options such as beach nourishments, dune management, or artificial reefs. The investment program is designed to facilitate the transition to softer solutions, with a focus on environmentally appropriate and sustainable solutions.

The benefits of coastal projection to coastal economies are enormous. Interventions to prevent coastal erosion and protect beaches and adjoining land will benefit port operators and users, fisherfolk, tourism operators, beach users, farmers, and other property owners and local communities living near to or depending on the coast. In addition, the introduction and development of new technologies have lower environmental and social impacts than rock walls, which are the traditional solution to coastal erosion problems in India. When solutions include the construction of artificial reefs, there are benefits for beaches, land and property behind beaches, tourism, and artisanal fisheries since reefs provide a beneficial habitat for fish and other marine species. The introduction of these new technologies for coastal protection leads to solutions that not only protect the coastline from erosion but enhance income-generating opportunities for communities living near the affected areas.

Impact Improved income and reduced poverty of the coastal communities in the subproject areas of two coastal states
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Protected and managed shorelines in the two states meeting the needs of stakeholders and the environment
Progress Toward Outcome The Loan was closed on 30 June 2018, financial closure under process by both the State Executing Agency.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Sustainable plans and management for shorelines developed - (i) Participatory shoreline management plans to meet the long term needs for shoreline management for 2 state coastlines prepared and endorsed; (ii) coastal management information system, to support planning and management established; (iii) project management system established and operational, and supbrojects for future tranches planned and designed.

2. Coastal Erosion and Instability Reduced - (i) coastal erosion and instability reduced; (ii) community and private sector engaged in coastal erosion and instability reduction.

3. Enhanced capacity for integrated shoreline planning and development - (i) Enchanced capacity for districts and states to plan, design, and implement shoreline protection and management projects; (ii) Enhanced capacity for state/district agencies, local experts/agencies, local bodies and stakeholders to provide specialist support for planning, modelling, design, checking and review for coastal protection and management; (iii) beaches are managed and maintained by the communities and stakeholders; (iv) SEAs formally mandated to coordinate all coastal protection and management programs.

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

The loan was closed on 30 June 2018, and financial closure under process.

1. Sustainable plans and management for shorelines developed

(i) Participatory shoreline management plans to meet the long-term needs for shoreline management for 2 state coastlines prepared and endorsed.

In both the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra, Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) procedures as well as SMPs for the district and state has been prepared and approved by the respective state governments.

(ii) coastal management information system, to support planning and management established.

CMIS is fully established in Maharashtra and under advance stage of establishment in Karnataka. The Project 2 in Karnataka has taken it forward. Staff has been trained to manage and maintain the system.

(iii) Project management system established and operational, and subprojects for future tranches planned and designed.

PMU established for both the states. Regular trainings were conducted to enhance EAs capacity.

Technical committee established in Karnataka for review and approval of design of coastal infrastructure.

Facility administration manual is fully operational.

PMDC was mobilized in both states in January 2012. However, PMDC-M self-terminated the contract effective 28 November 2013 due to certain issues. MMB has recruited a design and supervision consultant from States budget primarily for planning & preparing feasibility reports for future projects.

In Maharashtra, pre-feasibility studies for a stand-alone project have been completed. Government Of Maharashtra has to decide for proceeding ahead with the Stand alone loan for sustainable coastal protection and management.

The tranche 2 of SCPMIP for Karnataka was made effective on 15 December 2017.

2. Coastal Erosion and Instability Reduced

(i) coastal erosion and instability reduced

In Karnataka, civil work contracts were awarded for (a) construction of inshore berms (b) rehabilitation of breakwaters and (c) construction of offshore reefs to protect about 8 km of coast line in Karnataka. Works for (a) rehabilitation of breakwaters and (b) construction of offshore reefs have been completed in 2017. Construction of inshore berms including additional works assigned as part of the variation completed in June 2018.

In Maharashtra, contract for construction of offshore multipurpose reef at Mirya bay was completed in June 2016.

The second civil work for beach nourishment at Mirya was also completed in March 2017 to protect about 2 km shoreline in Maharashtra.

(ii) community and private sector engaged in coastal erosion and instability reduction.

Opportunities for few non-port related PPP activities were explored, but has not materialized.

SMOs have been formed in both the states. In Karnataka - SMOs formed in Ullal and Bengre, whereas in Maharashtra - SMO is formed in Mirya Bay.

Community works were awarded to the SMOs in Karnataka, while in Maharashtra community works are extended to gram panchayat level and currently seven MOUs with SMOs/GPs have been signed for Satpati, Varsoli, Kihim,Sagartirth, Kasid, Murud and Mirya.

3. Enhanced capacity for integrated shoreline planning and development

(i) Enhanced capacity for districts and states to plan, design, and implement shoreline protection and management projects

In both the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra, Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) procedures as well as SMPs for the district and state has been prepared and approved by the respective state governments.

(ii) Enhanced capacity for state/district agencies, local experts/agencies, local bodies and stakeholders to provide specialist support for planning, modelling, design, checking and review for coastal protection and management

GOK issued order for setting up CIMU in Karnataka on 21 Feb 2014 with 26 posts.

In Maharashtra, CIMU formed at head quarter level under chairmanship of CEO, MMB and 10 members from PMU and MMB staff.

Training plans and modules developed in both states which are being implemented.

Staff training have been held, about 60 staffs provided training in preparation of SMP, understanding coastal processes, construction management, PPMS, CIMU roles and responsibilities and ADB procurement procedures.

In Maharashtra first SMO formed at Mirya Bay site. In Karnataka Two SMOs (One each at Bengre and Ullal), and both are registered.

(iii) beaches are managed and maintained by the communities and stakeholders

SMOs have been formed in both the states. In Karnataka SMOs formed in Ullal and Bengre, whereas in Maharashtra SMO is formed in Mirya Bay.

Community works were awarded to SMOs in Karnataka, while in Maharashtra community works are extended to gram panchayat level and currently seven MOUs have been signed and majority of works completed.

(iv) SEAs formally mandated to coordinate all coastal protection and management programs.

Shoreline policy will be finalized after approval of SMPs for all districts which are under preparation.

Notification of policy will be taken up after approval of shoreline planning and management policy.

Geographical Location Nation-wide, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Mirya Bay, Ullal
Safeguard Categories
Environment A
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects Project construction work has been nearly complete for all major civil works packages. Both PMUs confirmed that the processes for obtaining modified environmental clearances under the coastal regulatory zone (CRZ) regulations have been initiated for the revised scope of works, and the regulatory compliances are expected to be achieved once the conditions stipulated by the National Green Tribunal are complied with by the respective state governments.. The PMU for the Karnataka component confirmed that the contractors had obtained the requisite consents to operate the construction plants from the SPCB. The PMUs also confirmed that no other clearances were required to be obtained under any other environmental and/or forest related regulations of India. ADB fielded missions in early 2018 to review safeguard aspects and assessed that some of the loan covenants related to environmental safeguards have been partially complied with, and compliance for some covenants is on-going. The Mission emphasized that the activities financed under the Project-1 must follow all applicable environmental regulations of India and to address on top priority for achieving compliance by agreed revised timelines, as proposed and confirmed by the PMU.
Involuntary Resettlement ADB fielded mission in July August 2017 to review safeguard aspects. PMU confirmed that none of the sub-projects had any issues related to the land acquisition and livelihood. The Mission did not come across any issue of significance.
Indigenous Peoples ADB fielded mission in July- August 2017 to review safeguard aspects. The PMU confirmed that the proposed sub-projects did not impact indigenous peoples. The Mission did not come across any issue of significance.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design

Participatory shoreline management plans (SMPs)

SMPs will be prepared to meet long-term shoreline management needs. Participatory and integrated SMPs, with the participation of women, will be produced for the coastlines of the participating states. Shoreline plans will address key issues of the coastal processes, shoreline land use, and present proposals for the long-term sustainable management and protection of the shoreline. The plans will also identify potential economic development opportunities in coastal areas.

During Project Implementation

Output 2 comprises (i) reducing coastal erosion and instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions, and (ii) community and private sector engagement in coastal erosion and instability reduction.

1. Reducing coastal erosion, salinity and instability. Coastal erosion, salinity and instability will be reduced through economically viable protection works, using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions. Key areas of other coastal protection interventions include (i) navigation inlets and training of river and drain mouths; (ii) natural protection through the development and planting of dunes, and planting of mangrove or other trees for protection or shelter; and (iii) coastal management, including water quality, dredging, and reclamation.

2. Community and private sector engagement. The key components will be (i) training provided to local communities in shoreline management and income-generating activities, and (ii) new initiatives toward income generation of local communities. The states will take steps toward encouraging private sector investments in coastal protection and management, including putting in place enabling policies and guidelines for private sector participation in coastal protection and management as feasible.

Output 3 includes (i) enhanced capacity within districts and states to design and implement projects; (ii) enhanced capacity of local experts and agencies, and government institutes; (iii) improved capacity of communities and stakeholders to manage and maintain beaches; and (iv) mandated SEAs to coordinate coastal infrastructure projects. Such capacity enhancement is crucial to realize the policy and institutional actions of the investment program road map.

1. Enhanced capacity within districts and states. Capacity at district and state levels will be enhanced to prepare and implement participatory SMPs. CIMUs will be established and shoreline management plans will be prepared and updated at 5 yearly intervals. SMPs will form the basis of long-term shoreline protection and management.

2. Enhanced capacity of local experts and agencies and government institutes. The capacity of local experts and agencies, local bodies, and stakeholders will be enhanced to provide specialist support for planning, modeling, design, checking, and review for coastal protection and management.

3. Improved capacity of communities and stakeholders. The mandates and capacities of communities and stakeholders will be improved to manage and maintain the beaches. Locally based community stakeholders and beneficiaries will support project coordination and monitoring during implementation, and management and maintenance of the beaches.

4. Mandated state executing agencies. The states will take all necessary steps to empower the SEAs to coordinate all coastal management programs. Towards this, the capacity of the SEAs will be enhanced. Establishment of a CIMU within the SEAs will support the coordination of the management information system.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services Loan closed on 30 June 2018.
Procurement Loan closed on 30 June 2018.
Responsible ADB Officer Yadav, Rajesh
Responsible ADB Department South Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division India Resident Mission
Executing Agencies
Maharashtra Maritime Board Govt.of Maharashtra,Indian Mercantile
[email protected]
Chambers,3rd flr., Ramjibhai Kamani Marg Ballard Estate, Mumbai-400 001, India
Maharashtra, India
Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept. - Karnataka
[email protected]
3rd Floor, Vikasa Soudha
Bangalore-560 001
Karnataka, India
Timetable
Concept Clearance 22 Sep 2009
Fact Finding 27 Sep 2009 to 14 Oct 2009
MRM 06 Mar 2007
Approval 06 Oct 2010
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 15 Feb 2010
Last PDS Update 27 Sep 2018

Loan 2679-IND

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
06 Oct 2010 17 Aug 2011 28 Nov 2011 31 Dec 2014 30 Jun 2018 20 Dec 2018
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 51.56 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 51.56 06 Oct 2010 36.48 0.00 100%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 06 Oct 2010 36.48 0.00 100%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.

In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

Title Document Type Document Datesort descending
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program Indigenous Peoples Planning Frameworks/Indigenous Peoples Development Frameworks Jun 2010
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program Resettlement Frameworks Jun 2010
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Jun 2010
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Amended Summary Environmental Impact Assessment Summary Environmental Impact Assessments Dec 2012
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Kartanaka (Tranche 1): Environmental Monitoring Report (January 2012-June 2014) Environmental Monitoring Reports Aug 2015
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Kartanaka (Tranche 1): Environmental Monitoring Report (July-December 2014) Environmental Monitoring Reports Aug 2015
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1: Environmental Monitoring Report (January-June 2015) Environmental Monitoring Reports Nov 2015
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1: Environmental Monitoring Report (July-December 2015) Environmental Monitoring Reports Mar 2018
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1: Environmental Monitoring Report (January-June 2016) Environmental Monitoring Reports Mar 2018
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1: Environmental Monitoring Report (July-December 2016) Environmental Monitoring Reports Mar 2018
Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1: Environmental Monitoring Report (January-June 2017) Environmental Monitoring Reports Mar 2018

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.


The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.

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