The Asian Development Bank is working with India to increase incomes and reduce poverty in the coastal communities of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. The program is helping protect and manage shorelines in the three states.
|Project Name||Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 2|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Water-based natural resources management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Some gender elements|
|Description||The Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program aims to address immediate coastal protection needs and coastal instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions, with a focus on softer options such as artificial reefs, beach nourishments, and dune management. The program also aims to protect the coastline from erosion and in so doing enhances income-generating opportunities for coastal communities. Tranche 2 will support nine subprojects consisting of six coastal protection subprojects designed to address the issues of medium to severe coastal erosion and three community subprojects for areas of low erosion resulting in the protection of approximately 54 km of coastline in Karnataka. Activities will include: (i) addressing immediate coastal protection needs; (ii) capacity building and institutional development; (iii) modeling and other analytical works to assess the impacts of climate change on selected sections of the coast; and (iv) comprehensive nearshore sea bed sand resources analysis designed to assess the issues of sand deficits of selected Karnataka beaches. It will continue to support strengthening of the executing agency on the long term activities on coastal planning and management that would continue after the end of the project period.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Coastal erosion is responsible for loss of land, houses, infrastructure, and business opportunities; and poses a high risk to human well-being, economic development, and ecological integrity. Every year, 400 hectares of land, 75,000 hectares of crop areas, and 34,000 residential houses and/or industrial establishments are lost or damaged by coastal erosion. The impact will be much more extensive and widespread in the coming years, as the coastline is increasingly subject to a wide range of economic developments, many of which create conflicts and pressures on the already disturbed natural coastal environments. The rural poor coastal communities are the most vulnerable to the impacts of erosion and poor coastal management. Many of the rapidly growing Indian urban areas are also vulnerable to coastal erosion; Mumbai, for example, incurs a cost of about $2.5 million per km on capital works alone to protect some of its prime waterfront property.
The coastal protection strategy in India aims at protecting the land and overall economic growth. Protecting the beach and the environment are relatively new concepts. The most frequently applied methods for coastal protection have been through the use of hard structures, such as seawalls or groynes. Long-term plans to manage coastal erosion are available. However, resource constraints result in the measures being undertaken to target the more vulnerable sections of the coasts and as local emergency measures. Such interventions provide mostly land protection. Seawalls and groynes continue to be preferred measures though they do not necessarily address the root cause of the problem. As the pressure on the coastal zone keeps expanding because of human-induced activities as well as relative sea level rise, there is an urgent need to find sustainable solutions for coastal protection.
Continuing coastal erosion worldwide is leading to the development and installation of innovative techniques for effective and unobtrusive shoreline and near shore control. There are increasing examples of replacement or modification of traditional hard rock protection with softer options such as beach nourishments, dune management, or artificial reefs. The investment program is designed to facilitate the transition to softer solutions, with a focus on environmentally appropriate and sustainable solutions.
The benefits of coastal projection to coastal economies are enormous. Interventions to prevent coastal erosion and protect beaches and adjoining land will benefit port operators and users, fisherfolk, tourism operators, beach users, farmers, and other property owners and local communities living near to or depending on the coast. In addition, the introduction and development of new technologies have lower environmental and social impacts than rock walls, which are the traditional solution to coastal erosion problems in India. When solutions include the construction of artificial reefs, there are benefits for beaches, land and property behind beaches, tourism, and artisanal fisheries since reefs provide a beneficial habitat for fish and other marine species. The introduction of these new technologies for coastal protection leads to solutions that not only protect the coastline from erosion but enhance income-generating opportunities for communities living near the affected areas.
|Impact||Income and poverty status of coastal communities in the subproject areas of Karnataka improved (Defined by Investment Program)|
|Description of Outcome||Shorelines in Karnataka protected and managed.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Tranche 2 for Karnataka was negotiated on 12 May 2017 and approved by ADB management in July 2017. The loan documents were signed in October 2017 and Project 2 declared effective from 15 December 2017. Project physically closed on 28 September 2020. All 10 CWs packages have been awarded. Of the 10 packages, seven packages have been reported as completed, and the remaining three are ongoing. The consultancy package has completed its services. About 29 km of shoreline line of Karnataka protected and managed from erosion and saline inundation using soft technologies.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Coastal erosion and instability mitigation structures constructed or upgraded.
Capacity for integrated shoreline planning and development enhanced.
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||Institutional arrangement for CIMU prepared and established. CMIS established, hosted on the project site, and used in planning and monitoring. Training modules prepared and imparted regularly to the PMU staff. CIMU and SMO staff trained in preparing two subprojects. Four SMOs have been formed under the Project. All 10 CWs packages have been awarded and works on three packages have been reported as ongoing. The consultancy package has completed its services.8.1 km of rock revetment, 58 groynes, 9 T-groynes, and 3.0 ha of dune planting, 8000 m3 of sand-filled geotextile bag protection, and 5,000 m3 of beach nourishment completed. Someshwara offshore reef and community protection subproject works are in progress.|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||Project 2, in accordance with ADB SPS 2009, is categorized as "B" for environment, The Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) reports and the associated Environmental Management and Monitoring Plans (EMMP) were prepared during project preparation. The Government through the EA is obliged to implement the recommendations from the IEE report.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||Project 2 is categorized as B in accordance with ADB SPS 2009, for social safeguards: Involuntary Resettlement (IR) and C for Impact to Indigenous People (IP). Due to a change in one subproject design, and based on due diligence that some impact may be caused the category for IR has been upgraded to B from earlier C.|
|Indigenous Peoples||The poverty and social assessment study confirm that there are no indigenous peoples or Schedule Tribes present in the project areas.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Between February 2013 and December 2014, public consultations were carried out on the design aspects of tranche 2 structures, with three specific groups of stakeholders i.e. (i) communities (ii) gram panchayats (GPs), and (iii) district officials. The initial consultation meetings at the community level were held at or near the proposed project sites. It involved presentations in the local language on the coastal erosion status and the proposed technical design. Brochures printed in the local language were also shared with the members. The participants at the community level included fisher-folks, fish retailers, farmers, small traders, members of youth clubs and prayer halls. This was followed by a meeting at the GP level, where discussions were held with the elected body members and officials. GPs were considered as the _converging point_ for all sub-project consultations. Some prominent citizens such as office bearers of the fisher folks association, retired school teachers, past ward members were also invited to these meetings. This was followed by a common meeting (sometimes two or more) convened by the District Collector. These meetings were generally large with as many as 50 to 60 participants attending each meeting. A cross-spectrum of department officials, political representatives, and prominent citizens attended these meetings. At the end of each of these meetings, the team sought stakeholder's concerns and apprehensions specific to the design. The suggestions received were incorporated into the final design. Some design adjustments were undertaken prior to and during construction to incorporate the actual beach profiles of the subprojects at the time of construction. Almost all subprojects required design adjustments due to beach level changes and to adapt to climate change. Post construction surveys of the completed subprojects were conducted to assess changes in the beach profiles after the completion of works.|
|During Project Implementation||The public consultation and disclosure program will remain a continuous process throughout the subprojects implementation. The participatory shoreline management plan (SMP) developed under Tranche 1 was updated considering the updated data on environmental erosion/accretion, land use, coastal infrastructure, and master plans related to tourism, industry, and fisheries. Based on stakeholder consultations, the State SMP was approved by the Government which includes technical solutions incorporating climate adaptation for each shore management unit.|
|Consulting Services||The consultants have been recruited using the quality- and cost-based selection method and has already completed the assignment.|
All procurement of goods and works are planned in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines.
All contracts have been awarded. Someshwara phase 1 package had undergone major design change due to changes in the site conditions. The contract for Murdeshwara was terminated due to no access to the project site, and stable beach conditions indicating no or less erosion. Works are ongoing majorly for three contracts viz., Someshwara Phase 2 subproject and two community subprojects.
|Responsible ADB Officer||Yadav, Rajesh|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||India Resident Mission|
Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept. - Karnataka
3rd Floor, Vikasa Soudha
|MRM||08 Jun 2016|
|Approval||27 Jul 2017|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||23 Dec 2020|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|27 Jul 2017||26 Oct 2017||15 Dec 2017||28 Sep 2020||-||22 Feb 2021|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||93.54||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||65.50||27 Jul 2017||46.25||0.00||100%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||27 Jul 2017||46.25||0.00||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
Restoring Beaches through Sustainable Coastal Protection and ManagementHybrid approaches to coastal protection and management help counter the threat of eroding coastlines and help preserve livelihoods and communities.
ADB, India Sign $65.5 Million Loan to Support Coastal Protection in KarnatakaADB and the Government of India have signed a $65.5 million loan agreement at Bengaluru to continue interventions to check coastal erosion on the western coast in Karnataka.
|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|Loan No. 3549-IND: Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 2 [CW-NCB-SO-02]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||07 Dec 2018||07 Jan 2019|
|3549-IND: Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 2 [CW-NCB-YT-01]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||16 Mar 2018||23 Apr 2018|
|IND: Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program – Tranche 2||Advance Notice||Archived||29 Feb 2016|
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor||Contractor Address||Executing Agency||Contract Description||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|COMMUNITY SUB-PROJECT 2 - DUNE CONSTRUCTION & PLAN TATION WORKS IN DHARESWARA- KADLE BIRKODI & GANGEK OLLI UTTARA KANNADA DISTRICT (CW-NCB-CP3-01(B))||Loan 3549||26 Nov 2019||M/S RAMALINGAM CONSTRUCTION COMPANY (P) LTD.||BENGALURU INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||2,210,851.26||1,714,710.10|
|COMMUNITY SUBPROJECT 1 - DUNE CONSTRUCTION & PLANT ATION WORKS IN BAILUR & THUMBEBEELA ?MANKI UTTARA KANNADA DISTRICT CW-NCB-CP3-01(A)||Loan 3549||26 Nov 2019||M/S RAMALINGAM CONSTRUCTION COMPANY (P) LTD||BENGALURU INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||1,089,556.11||845,046.84|
|MUKKACHERRY - REHABILITATION OF EXISITNG SEAWALL F OR SHORELINE PROTECTION MANAGEMENT (CW-NCB-MK-01)||Loan 3549||05 Aug 2019||M/S RCCL-DDIL JV||BANGALORE INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||2,849,267.53||2,376,116.44|
|SOMESWARA REEF- CONSTRUCTION OF 2 NOS OF OFFSHORE REEFS AND SAND NOURISHMENT FOR SHORELINE PROTECTIO N AND MANAGEMENT||Loan 3549||22 Jul 2019||DVP INFRA PROJECTS PVT LTD RDS PROJECTSLTDJV||MUMBAI INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||13,600,351.68||11,468,544.96|
|YERMAL THENKA - CONSTRUCTION OF ROCK REVETMENT FOR SHORELINE PROTECTION MANAGEMENT||Loan 3549||22 Jul 2019||M/S SRI PATHY ASSOCEATES||ERODE INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||5,231,034.39||4,411,088.37|
|SOMESHWARA - CONSTRUCTION OF GEOTEXTILE REVETMENT FOR SHORELINE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT||Loan 3549||04 Jun 2018||M/S DHARTI DREDGING AND INFRASTRUCTURE LTD||HYDERABAD INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||4,047,339.00||3,083,207.00|
|PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN CONSULTANTS (PMDC-K )||Loan 3549||17 Jan 2018||M/S FCG ANZDEC LIMITED||NEW ZEALAND NEW ZEALAND||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSULTANCY||5,498,086.00||3,824,124.00|
|MARAVANTHE - CONSTRUCTION OF ROCK AND CONCRETE GRO YNES AND SAND NOURISHMENT FOR SHORELINE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT (CW-ICB-MV-01)||Loan 3549||17 Jan 2018||M/S COMACOE-RDS-YOJAKA JV||THANE, MAHARASHTRA INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||13,894,836.00||10,694,427.00|
|UDYAVARA - CONSTRUCTION OF ROCK GROYNES AND BEACH NOURISHMENT FOR SHORELINE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMEN T (CW-ICB-UV- 01)||Loan 3549||17 Jan 2018||M/S YOJAKA-COMACOE-RDS JV||MANGALORE KARNATAKA INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||12,348,539.00||9,504,289.00|
|KODI BENGRE - CONSTRUCTION OF ROCK REVETMENT FOR S HORELINE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT (CW-NCB-KB-01)||Loan 3549||17 Jan 2018||M/S RCCL - DDIL JV||BANGALORE INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||9,663,673.00||7,437,831.00|
|MURUDESHWARA - CONSTRUCTION OF OFFSHORE REEF, SAN D NOURISHMENT AND DUNE STABILIZATION FOR SHORELINE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT (CW-ICB-MU-01)||Loan 3549||17 Jan 2018||M/S RDS PROJECT LTD||KOCHI INDIA||Public Works, Ports & Inland Water Transport Dept.||CONSTRUCTION||3,822,474.00||2,942,040.00|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 2: Procurement Plan||Procurement Plans||Nov 2019|