The Government of Viet Nam is committed to improving access, quality, reliability and sustainability of water supply and sanitation services to residents in rural areas. In 2001, the Government issued a National Rural Clean Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy (NRWSS), which sets a target of supplying clean water supply to 85% of the rural population by 2010 and 100% by 2020. It also sets a target of 70% of rural households to use hygienic latrines and practice personal hygiene. In 1998, the Government also issued a Decision , which sets the National Target Program (NTP I) for Rural Clean Water Supply and Environmental Hygiene. The achievements and problems encountered during the implementation of NTP I were evaluated in 2005 in a Donor/Government Joint Sector Review Report, and a Review Report of its first 5 years of implementation prepared by MARD.
|Project Name||Central Region Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Rural sanitation - Rural water supply services
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Gender equity|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||The Government of Viet Nam is committed to improving access, quality, reliability and sustainability of water supply and sanitation services to residents in rural areas. In 2001, the Government issued a National Rural Clean Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy (NRWSS), which sets a target of supplying clean water supply to 85% of the rural population by 2010 and 100% by 2020. It also sets a target of 70% of rural households to use hygienic latrines and practice personal hygiene. In 1998, the Government also issued a Decision , which sets the National Target Program (NTP I) for Rural Clean Water Supply and Environmental Hygiene. The achievements and problems encountered during the implementation of NTP I were evaluated in 2005 in a Donor/Government Joint Sector Review Report, and a Review Report of its first 5 years of implementation prepared by MARD. Based on the results of these evaluations, the Government established the NTP II in March 2006, which lists the water supply and sanitation needs and targets for rural areas for rehabilitation, expansion, or development of facilities. The NTP II has guided sector development over the past two years, including investments funded by Government and by some development partners. It is expected that a review of NTP II implementation will be prepared during 2008. The NRWSS will also be updated in 2008 to reflect the Government?s increasing emphasis on sanitation and community participation. In recent years, Viet Nam has made significant progress in increasing access to clean and reliable water supply for its residents in rural areas. In 1998, only about 17 million of the rural population had access to clean water. Currently, approximately 40 million people or about 62% of the rural population has access to clean water supply, of which 30% of households are supplied with clean water as defined by the MOH standards . Upon completion of the NTP II in 2010, it is expected that about 85% of rural residents will have access to safe water, of which 50% (42.5% of total) will have access to clean water as defined by the MOH standards. However, many rural residents often rely on shallow wells, ponds and streams, which are often biologically contaminated. In some instances, women and children spend as much as 1?2 hours each day collecting water from distant sources. The operations and maintenance of RWSS needs to be improved, and community and private sector participation in management of facilities needs to be strengthened to improve sustainability.
The rural sanitation in Viet Nam follows a comparable trend. By the end of 2005, about 6.4 million rural households used hygienic latrines, compared with only 2.7 million in 1999. However, still about 50% of rural residents do not have proper toilet facilities and use open ground, fields, local drains, and watercourses for disposal of excreta and wastewater. In addition, only 17% or rural markets have access to public toilets and clean water, less than 70% of schools and kindergarten and only about 58% of commune health stations have proper latrines. Much effort is still required to increase awareness of the need for sanitation and the use of safe water in the rural areas, through the development of efficient IEC campaigns and the allocation of more resources for this purpose. Significant investments are required to improve the situation in the RWSS sector. The NTP II estimates that about 22,600,000 million VND ($1.4 billion) will be required for the period 2006-2010 with 3,400,000 ($210 million) to be financed by international development partners. Keeping all other factors constant, the effect of low coverage of safe water supplies and poor sanitation conditions can be seen in the frequency of water-related disease outbreaks (e.g., diarrheal diseases and/or cholera), severity of illness and subsequent death. Lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation and non-hygienic practices are main causes for disease and illness.
|Impact||The impact of the TA is the improved and sustainable use of water supply and sanitation facilities and the adoption of safe hygiene practices by the rural population in the project area. It will contribute to the Government's goal of providing safe water to 85% of residents in rural areas, and for 70% of the rural households to use hygienic latrines and practice good personal hygiene, by 2015. This is expected to contribute to reducing the incidence of water-related diseases in the project area, particularly benefiting women and children.|
|Description of Outcome||The outcome of the TA is a sector project and a set of policy reform recommendations to develop Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) and improve environmental conditions in 6 priority provinces in the North Central and South Central regions. This is expected to improve access, quality, reliability, and sustainability of water supply and sanitation services for rural residents, in particular for women. The TA supports the preparation of a sector Project that will help the Government's efforts in achieving the Viet Nam' Millenium Development Goal (MDG) for water supply and sanitation, with particular attention to sanitation. It will also assess the possibility of providing support through a sector-wide approach modality. The TA is consistent with, and supports, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development's policies and programs as outlined in its National Rural Clean Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy (NRWSS) and the National Target Plan II.|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||The TA will have the following outputs: (i) a national RWSS analysis including a sector profile, evaluation of sector institutions, policies, strategies and plans, and recommendations to further strengthen the sector's regulatory, planning, and management capacity; (ii) an assessment of a potential sector-wide approach to intervention and the identification of triggers and benchmarks; (iii) the identification of investments sites in the six provinces, applying need- and demand-based criteria, including the incidence of poverty, water and sanitation coverage, and the availability of safe and adequate surface and groundwater sources; (iv) the formulation of a typology of subprojects, including ranking and screening criteria, and the identification of six core subprojects representing a cross section of the geographical area previously determined; (v) the preparation of feasibility studies for the six core subprojects; (vi) the development of an overall sector investment project including scope, cost estimates, financing plan, implementation arrangements, flow of funds mechanism, assessment of risks and mitigation measures, and economic, financial, social, and environmental analysis; and (vii) appraisal of private sector participation in RWSS to identify potential public-private partnership demonstration initiatives in rural areas. The TA will develop a typology of water supply projects such as wells, tube wells, ponds with treatment facilities, small piped-water systems, household filters, improved rainwater-harvesting systems, and small-scale private and public sanitation systems. It will design a campaign to raise awareness of water use and hygiene issues.|
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||A stakeholder analysis will be undertaken to identify key project stakeholders, their project-related interests, and their role in determining project feasibility and success. A wide range of stakeholders and beneficiaries will be consulted during project preparation, including Government officials working on ongoing RWSS projects. Other stakeholders include government agencies; international and bilateral agencies; nongovernment organizations; mass organizations (e.g., the Viet Nam Women's Union); provincial, district, and commune authorities; civil society; private water vendors; and project-affected people and communities. Stakeholders and their roles will be disaggregated by sex and ethnic group where possible.
During project preparation, a series of stakeholder consultations and TA workshops disseminated information and sought consensus on project design to aid the preparation of required TA reports. Participatory planning and appraisal techniques will be used to understand community priorities and perceptions regarding RWSS. Informant interviews and focused group discussions will be held with men and women from different ethnic groups, jointly and individually.
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||These have been completed and PPTA is being closed.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Paulus B. van Klaveren|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban Development and Water Division, SERD|
Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development (MARD)
Dr. Le Vanh Minh
No.2-Ngoc Ha Street-Ba Dinh District Hanoi, Viet Nam
|Concept Clearance||18 Mar 2008|
|Fact Finding||19 Nov 2007 to 23 Nov 2007|
|Approval||11 Sep 2008|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||08 Apr 2008|
|Last PDS Update||16 Dec 2011|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|11 Sep 2008||04 Dec 2008||04 Dec 2008||30 Jun 2009||30 Apr 2011||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|600,000.00||0.00||150,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||750,000.00||11 Sep 2008||493,604.87|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Preparing the Central Region Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project||Technical Assistance Reports||Sep 2008|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Central Region Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project||Indigenous Peoples Planning Documents||Aug 2009|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
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