40448-013: Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project | Asian Development Bank

Bangladesh: Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project

Sovereign (Public) Project | 40448-013 Status: Active

ADB is helping Bangladesh improve the quality of training for secondary school teachers in the country. The project will focus on improving teacher competencies, enhancing the learning environment, and advancing student performance, particularly in science, mathematics, and English language studies. It will also pilot computer-aided learning.

Project Details

Project Officer
Rahman, S.M. Ebadur South Asia Department Request for information
  • Bangladesh
  • Loan
  • Education
Project Name Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project
Project Number 40448-013
Country Bangladesh
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Loan 2859-BAN: Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project
concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund US$ 70.00 million
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Sector / Subsector

Education / Secondary

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Gender equity

With the approval of the National Education Policy (NEP), the government has embarked on a comprehensive reform process to strengthen access, quality, equity and relevance of education in Bangladesh. In 2011 a new phase of the primary education reform program started, with ADB as one of the key partners. The TQI-I and TQI-II projects are core building blocks to strengthen quality of secondary education in line with the reforms proposed in the NEP. Building on TQI-I achievements and gaps, TQI-II includes the following features to enhance teacher quality: (i) establishing partnerships between universities and teacher training colleges (TTCs) to enhance content and pedagogical knowledge of teachers and recognizing prior learning within an integrated teacher development framework; (ii) developing one of the TTCs as a center of excellence for teaching English; (iii) introducing teacher and head teacher competencies, and institutionalizing teacher classroom performance monitoring by head teachers; (iv) piloting computer aided learning to support the government's large investments envisaged in the use of computers and multi-media to enhance teaching and learning; (v) providing incentives to enhance inclusive education; and (vi) strengthening teaching and learning and equity by enhancing the use of innovation development fund.

TQI-II will by developing a strengthened, integrated and more inclusive teacher education system, support improved learning outcomes in secondary education. TQI-II has the following four components: (i) strengthened teacher development and institutional and organizational capacity to ensure registration of all teachers, establishment of a robust accreditation system for quality assurance of training providers, and application of newly acquired knowledge by teachers; (ii) enhanced teacher training programs and delivery systems (pre-service, in-service and CPD) to ensure synergy of training programs to meet agreed teacher and head teacher competencies; (iii) targeted support for inclusive education to increase the proportion of female teachers and support for remedial teaching where student performance is low; and (iv) quality project management for effective implementation and effective monitoring and reporting.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Secondary education prepares students for employment at entry level and serves as a foundation for those who aspire for advanced studies. In Bangladesh, steady growth in primary education over the last three decades has resulted in a concomitant expansion of the number of secondary schools, teachers, and enrolments. Bangladesh had 19,040 secondary schools (up from 18,500 in 2005) and 8,146 madrashas (religious schools which include Dakhil for 6-10 grades and Alim for grades 11 and 12) with a total enrolment of 7.9 million (53.2% girls) and 1.7 million (57% girls), respectively in 2010. The gross enrolment rate was about 47% (girls 49%) in 2010 up from [43% (47% for girls) in 2005]. Dropout rates have declined from around 80% in 2006 (83% for girls) to around 57% (54% for girls) in 2010 for secondary grades 6 10. The pass rates for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) have increased from 60% in 2006 to about 82% in 2011, for the higher secondary certificate (HSC) from 59% in 2005 to 75% in 2011.

The total number of secondary school teachers was 218,011 in 2010 (declined from 238,158 in 2005). The proportion of female teachers has increased gradually from 20% in 2005 to 23% in 2010. While the government policy of achieving 20% of all teachers in rural areas and 40% in urban areas with female teachers has been almost achieved, there are several upazials and schools that are yet to achieve this target. With the enormous growth in the number of secondary institutions in recent years, the Government's administrative and supervisory capacity has stretched, and there is recognition that it is inadequate to fulfil its responsibilities effectively. There is also recognition that there is a need for effective monitoring and supervision at all levels to ensure quality assurance including monitoring and supervision of teacher training institutions and teachers. The percentage of untrained teachers has declined from about 60% in 2004 to 32.6% in 1010, which is still unacceptably high.

While Bangladesh has made significant progress in providing access to secondary education and achieved gender parity up to grade 10, the quality of teaching, and hence student learning, continues to be a major concern. Students who complete secondary education are unprepared to enter the workforce in higher job categories, or to continue to tertiary education. Poor and disadvantaged students are most affected since they have limited educational options, cannot afford additional tuition, and usually come from a social background which perceives less value of education. While girls' enrolment has improved significantly, their performance and retention deteriorate particularly after grade 9. In some areas, more girls are in schools than boys, which will require measures to ensure boys attend and complete secondary education.

The ongoing Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI-I) has strengthened the capacity of a large number of secondary teachers through targeting classroom level teaching and learning with a continuous professional development (CPD) approach which includes supporting and monitoring the usage of new participatory teaching approaches of participants in the classroom. According to an initial assessment by the TQI-I project this has resulted in considerable changes in the classroom. Acknowledging the challenges of improving the quality of teachers, the Government established a National Teacher Education Commission (NTEC). With the support of TQI-I, a Nongovernment Teachers Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA) was established by an Act to improve the teacher recruitment system. However, an integrated quality assurance system along with an integrated secondary teacher management information system and teacher performance monitoring system is yet to be established and made operational to ensure effective performance of teachers.

Impact Improved learning outcomes in secondary education.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Strengthened, integrated and more inclusive secondary teacher education system.
Progress Toward Outcome

The key contribution of the TQI-II project is its strategic support to policies and strategies of the government in critical areas of secondary education standard development (Secondary Teachers' Competency Standards; Pre-service Teacher Education; Continuous Professional Development; and Inclusive Education; Recognition of Prior Learning). The success of the project is assured by instituting these policy approaches and strategies to realize an inclusive quality education and to sustain the gains of the with due regard to the environmental integrity of target areas. All aspects of the TQI-II project considered, the Government of Bangladesh is expected to comply some of its commitments to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It not only responds to Goal 4: Quality Education, it also directly and indirectly contributes to 5,8, 11, 15, 16, and 17. The Gender Action Plan, Advocacy Framework and the Inclusive Education Strategy developed by the project are key critical milestones that are in direct harmony with the actions to achieve SDGs.

The TQI-II project has significantly contributed to the following outcomes:

1) The Gross Enrolment Rate in Secondary Education in 2010 was 47.34% (girls 51.35%) which increased to 72.78 % in 2015 (67.75% for boys and 77.84% for girls) Similarly, net enrolment Rate (NER) in 2010 was 49.53% and it increased to 68.76% in 2015 (63.92 for boys and 73.62 for girls). Relative to this is decrease in the dropout rate. In 2010, the drop put rate was 55.26% which decreased to 40.29% in 2015 (33.72% for boys and 45.92% for girls) Cycle completion rate in 2010 was 44.74% which increased to 59.71% in 2015 (66.28% for boys and 54.08% for girls).

2) There has been a noteworthy decrease in the range between Secondary School certificate Examination (SSC) and higher secondary school certificate examination (HSC) pass rate of top 10% and bottom 10% Upazilas. In 2010 baseline survey, the range for SSC exam was 24.3%, while in 2016 the range was 7.41%. For HSC examination, the baseline range in 2010 stood at 30.3%, while in 2016, range became 19.37%.

3) With regard to attention to gender and inclusive education, significant achievement is noticed with regard to increase in the intake of female teachers (about 30%), and teachers from the ethnic community and disadvantaged regions (20%). The Project is having an impact on awareness of Inclusive Education and gender issues at the community level through a multi-pronged approach including training of SMC members, and the launch of the community awareness program on Zero Tolerance towards violation of rights of girl students and female teachers conducted by trainers who have recently returned from international training.

4) The teaching-learning methods and techniques used in most of the secondary level institutions have become participatory in place of teacher centric approach which traditionally involved giving lectures and reading books. Teachers are now increasingly involving students in group discussion, pair work, and group work findings presentation in their teaching method. The CPD training programs given to more than 250,000 teachers have been found to change most of their traditional way of teaching style to participatory way of teaching learning practices. Data from the field assessment shows that students' achievements in examinations have been improving continuously.

5) The TQI-II project introduced the multi-media method in secondary schools. At present, 72% of the secondary level institutions have separate multimedia classrooms. Teachers are teaching their subjects using attractive power point slides, video clips, and thinking stimulating images in their teaching methods.

6) The revision of One-year B.Ed curriculum under National University, the Training of Trainers (TOT) Program and the overseas training have been catalyst for improving the capacity of all TTC Teacher Educators. Delivering CPD training and attending short courses at overseas institutions has further reinforced changes in pedagogy introduced with the revised B.Ed. and helped Teacher Educators to consolidate changes in teaching approaches. Teacher Educators use a range of participatory approaches and teaching aids in the classrooms and make more and better use of educational technologies provided by the Project.

7) The Project interventions have improved capacity of the TTCs to train and mentor district-level teachers to become Master Trainers through the HSTTI/TTC partnership. The involvement of Master Trainers has not only improved the capacity of TQI -2 Project to achieve its training targets within the time available but has also worked indirectly to improve teaching quality in schools. Sustainability is also secured through involvement of HSTTI and TTC experts in TOT and through developing a pool of trainers at local level.

8) The Project has re-focused the B.Ed. program to a teacher competency-informed, outcome-based program. By building capacity to deliver the B.Ed. through distance education has been able to provide training access and support to remote teachers. The new B.Ed. program, in conjunction with TTC teacher educators as the primary Master Trainers of CPD in-service teacher training program has helped to achieve universal adoption of participatory teaching approaches.

These qualitative outcomes are mainly due to government's and development partners' interventions over the last several years through the earlier and current phase of the TQI project.

Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Strengthened teacher development institutional and organizational capacity for secondary schools and Madrasah

2. Enhanced teacher training programs and delivery systems.

3. Targeted support for inclusive education

4. Quality project management

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

With the extension of the time frame and approval of the DPP, the project is now to close on 30 June 2018.

Major outputs of the project consistent with 4 components are given below:

Component-1: Strengthen Teacher Development and Institutional and Organizational Capacity.

This component relates to strengthening institutional and policy frameworks, Strengthening DSHE capacity to develop, supply and monitor teacher quality; enhancing teacher classroom performance monitoring; and facilitating partnership arrangements, including those linked to ICT in education. A major work has just been completed with regard to the development of 6 Policy Guidelines on:

1) Secondary Teacher Competency Standards Policy Guidelines (STCS)

2) Pre-Service Teacher Education Policy Guideline (PSTE)

3) CPD Policy Guidelines

4) Recognition of Prior Learning Policy Guideline

5) IE Policy Guideline

6) Centre of Excellence Policy Guidelines

Another important task that has just been accomplished is the completion of a study on NTRCA and NTEC, and the drafting of the NTEC law by the project.

National standards for TT Providers were completed and approved by NTEC, as well as initiation of standard setting for 8 secondary level subject. Contacts had been established to support the development of software for monitoring NTEC, DSHE, TTCs, HSTTI etc. in the field, along with GPS Establishment. The software is expected to be developed and delivered by October 2017. A total of 390 DSHE officers have received computer training, while 72 DSHE officers had completed basic and advanced English training from British Council.

Management Training Manual for DSHE officers is 90% completed and training will start from October 2017. There has been significant progress with regard to Overseas Study Tour. A total of 165 participants completed overseas Training so far, and a new training modality that is being developed will see continuation of targeted study tours in the region over the next six months.

In the area of research, a critical study on Demand and Supply of Teachers and Institutionalization of Secondary Teacher Career Path have completed. The study on Strengthening Head Teacher /Principal leadership for monitoring classroom performance of teachers data collection has been completed and data processing and data analysis is under way.

The three IT partnerships producing E-manuals for Physics, Chemistry and Bangladesh and Global Studies, e-learning resources for English, Math, Accounting and e-learning resources for Physics, Chemistry and Biology) were completed and launched in January 2017. For the STIS (to be used to train 1,400 officers from DSHE, districts and upazilas) software is installed and hosted in the EMIS server and upgrading of data from BANBEIS 2nd Census is continuing.

The project also trained 9400 (94%) out of 10,000 head teachers, principals and superintendents (Madrasahs) on a 21-day training course in school management and leadership as part of DSHE Capacity Strengthening Training. Likewise, 10371 head teachers, principals and Madrassa super out of 10000 received 35 days training and 13830 out of 14000 head teachers, principals and superintendents (Madrasahs) received the 35-day training till date.

Work on the institutionalizing of the Classroom monitoring system is progressing as per the established monitoring plan.

Component 2: Enhanced Teacher Training Programs and Delivery Systems

This component relates to modernized pre-service teacher training systems; CPD policy and program development and delivery; Strengthened and efficient in-service teacher training program; ICT based teaching and learning; and strengthening capacity of teacher training providers.

B. Ed curriculum was formally approved by NU and dissemination of new B.Ed curriculum among the Government and private TTC Trainers has been completed. Implementation of new B.Ed curriculum started from January 2017.Writing of B.Ed Textbooks based on the new B.Ed curriculum is in progress. PSTE Policy Guidelines were finalized, as was the introduction of the. B.Ed Merit Stipend Program for Secondary Teacher Education. Three Centers of Excellence for English, Mathematics and Science were established at 3 Government TTCs (Dhaka TTC English, Rajshahi TTC - Mathematics, and Sylhet TTC -Science).

Meanwhile, all CPD Manuals for Grade 11-12 and 4 CPD Manuals for Grade 9-11 have been completed, printed and distributed among the participants and these materials are now being used in the on-going Training programs.

The ICT/e-Learning specialists have designed a 10-day course and an impact study for AICT. These are to begin concurrently shortly.

Component 3: Targeted support for inclusive education (IE)

Under this project, an advocacy strategy note is being developed by the project that will be followed by the launching of some major advocacy work over the remaining life of the project. The new Plan contains specific monitoring and evaluation strategy to determine the success and impact of advocacy campaigns.

In capacity building area, a concept paper was prepared for the re-orientation of teachers for the conducted remedial class. 85 teachers, of whom 21 (25%) were females, from the underserved areas were granted scholarship grants for one year to enroll for a B.Ed. degree in various Govt TTCs. A total of BDT 6,834,000 was released as incentive grants to teachers in Comilla, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Barisal, Mymensingh and Khulna.

The Innovation Fund has been operational that saw undertaking of a number of creative and impact oriented activities reflecting on inclusive education, targeting female, underprivileged children, ethnic minority and children with disability.

Component 4: Quality Project Management

TQI-II Project Management Unit comprising 11 officials of the cadre service with support staff is responsible for day to-day activities of the Project implementation. The PMU is supported by Consultancy services deployed under two consultancy heads, namely the Teacher Education Management team (known as TEM or Team 1) and the Twinning Arrangement Component team (known as TAC or Team 2). These two concurrent, interacting components are managed by one International Team Leader (TL) - independently contracted by GoB - supported by the Deputy Team Leader (DTL) hired under Team. The PMU has full staff strength and functioning with team spirit .The project is being managed with full cooperation between PMU and TA.

Geographical Location Nation-wide, Bandarban District, Barguna District, Bhola District, Brahmanbaria District, Chandpur District, Chapai Nawabganj District, Chengmi, Cox's Bazar District, Dhaka, Dinajpur District, Gazipur District, Gopalganj District, Habiganj District, Jaipurhat District, Jamalpur District, Jhenaidah District, Kishoreganj District, Kushtia District, Lalmonirhat District, Moulvibazar District, Naogaon, Netrakona District, Noakhali District, Panchagarh District, Pirojpur District, Satkhira District, Sunamganj District
Safeguard Categories
Environment C
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples B
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects The project has been categorized under Category C'
Involuntary Resettlement The project has been categorized under Category C'
Indigenous Peoples The project has been categorized under Category B'
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Consultations were organized to prepare the project.
During Project Implementation The project will work in partnership with multiple stakeholders such as school management committees and parent-teacher associations.
Responsible ADB Officer Rahman, S.M. Ebadur
Responsible ADB Department South Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Bangladesh Resident Mission
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Education
Shikkha Bhaban, 16 Abdul Ghani Road
Concept Clearance 14 Dec 2011
Fact Finding 29 Nov 2011 to 04 Dec 2011
MRM 26 Jan 2012
Approval 30 Mar 2012
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 25 Sep 2017

Loan 2859-BAN

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
30 Mar 2012 02 Oct 2012 02 Nov 2012 31 Dec 2017 31 Dec 2018 -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 85.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 70.00 30 Mar 2012 43.31 0.00 85%
Counterpart 15.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 30 Mar 2012 45.11 0.00 89%

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No tenders for this project were found.

Contracts Awarded

Contract Title Approval Number Contract Date Contractor Contractor Address Executing Agency Contract Description Total Contract Amount (US$) Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)
Individual Consultant(International) as Institutional and Organizational Strengthening Specialist Team Leader, Contract No. SD-313, WA 0100 Loan 2859 27 Feb 2017 Dr. M. Amanullah Khan 304/1 Sovereign Point Court, Doncaster, 3108. Australia Ministry of Education Consultancy 111100
GD 309: WA 00036 Payment to RFL Loan 2859 17 Jan 2017 PRAN-RFL 105 Middle Badda, Dhaka - 1212, Banglade Sh Bangladesh Ministry of Education Supply of Goods 137541.32 137323.523

Procurement Plan