Bangladesh : Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project
ADB is helping Bangladesh improve the quality of training for secondary school teachers in the country. The project will focus on improving teacher competencies, enhancing the learning environment, and advancing student performance, particularly in science, mathematics, and English language studies. It will also pilot computer-aided learning.
South Asia Department
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|Project Name||Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project|
|Country / Economy||Bangladesh
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Education / Secondary
With the approval of the National Education Policy (NEP), the government has embarked on a comprehensive reform process to strengthen access, quality, equity and relevance of education in Bangladesh. In 2011 a new phase of the primary education reform program started, with ADB as one of the key partners. The TQI-I and TQI-II projects are core building blocks to strengthen quality of secondary education in line with the reforms proposed in the NEP. Building on TQI-I achievements and gaps, TQI-II includes the following features to enhance teacher quality: (i) establishing partnerships between universities and teacher training colleges (TTCs) to enhance content and pedagogical knowledge of teachers and recognizing prior learning within an integrated teacher development framework; (ii) developing one of the TTCs as a center of excellence for teaching English; (iii) introducing teacher and head teacher competencies, and institutionalizing teacher classroom performance monitoring by head teachers; (iv) piloting computer aided learning to support the government's large investments envisaged in the use of computers and multi-media to enhance teaching and learning; (v) providing incentives to enhance inclusive education; and (vi) strengthening teaching and learning and equity by enhancing the use of innovation development fund.
TQI-II will by developing a strengthened, integrated and more inclusive teacher education system, support improved learning outcomes in secondary education. TQI-II has the following four components: (i) strengthened teacher development and institutional and organizational capacity to ensure registration of all teachers, establishment of a robust accreditation system for quality assurance of training providers, and application of newly acquired knowledge by teachers; (ii) enhanced teacher training programs and delivery systems (pre-service, in-service and CPD) to ensure synergy of training programs to meet agreed teacher and head teacher competencies; (iii) targeted support for inclusive education to increase the proportion of female teachers and support for remedial teaching where student performance is low; and (iv) quality project management for effective implementation and effective monitoring and reporting.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Secondary education prepares students for employment at entry level and serves as a foundation for those who aspire for advanced studies. In Bangladesh, steady growth in primary education over the last three decades has resulted in a concomitant expansion of the number of secondary schools, teachers, and enrolments. Bangladesh had 19,040 secondary schools (up from 18,500 in 2005) and 8,146 madrashas (religious schools which include Dakhil for 6-10 grades and Alim for grades 11 and 12) with a total enrolment of 7.9 million (53.2% girls) and 1.7 million (57% girls), respectively in 2010. The gross enrolment rate was about 47% (girls 49%) in 2010 up from [43% (47% for girls) in 2005]. Dropout rates have declined from around 80% in 2006 (83% for girls) to around 57% (54% for girls) in 2010 for secondary grades 6 10. The pass rates for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) have increased from 60% in 2006 to about 82% in 2011, for the higher secondary certificate (HSC) from 59% in 2005 to 75% in 2011.
The total number of secondary school teachers was 218,011 in 2010 (declined from 238,158 in 2005). The proportion of female teachers has increased gradually from 20% in 2005 to 23% in 2010. While the government policy of achieving 20% of all teachers in rural areas and 40% in urban areas with female teachers has been almost achieved, there are several upazials and schools that are yet to achieve this target. With the enormous growth in the number of secondary institutions in recent years, the Government's administrative and supervisory capacity has stretched, and there is recognition that it is inadequate to fulfil its responsibilities effectively. There is also recognition that there is a need for effective monitoring and supervision at all levels to ensure quality assurance including monitoring and supervision of teacher training institutions and teachers. The percentage of untrained teachers has declined from about 60% in 2004 to 32.6% in 1010, which is still unacceptably high.
While Bangladesh has made significant progress in providing access to secondary education and achieved gender parity up to grade 10, the quality of teaching, and hence student learning, continues to be a major concern. Students who complete secondary education are unprepared to enter the workforce in higher job categories, or to continue to tertiary education. Poor and disadvantaged students are most affected since they have limited educational options, cannot afford additional tuition, and usually come from a social background which perceives less value of education. While girls' enrolment has improved significantly, their performance and retention deteriorate particularly after grade 9. In some areas, more girls are in schools than boys, which will require measures to ensure boys attend and complete secondary education.
The ongoing Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI-I) has strengthened the capacity of a large number of secondary teachers through targeting classroom level teaching and learning with a continuous professional development (CPD) approach which includes supporting and monitoring the usage of new participatory teaching approaches of participants in the classroom. According to an initial assessment by the TQI-I project this has resulted in considerable changes in the classroom. Acknowledging the challenges of improving the quality of teachers, the Government established a National Teacher Education Commission (NTEC). With the support of TQI-I, a Nongovernment Teachers Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA) was established by an Act to improve the teacher recruitment system. However, an integrated quality assurance system along with an integrated secondary teacher management information system and teacher performance monitoring system is yet to be established and made operational to ensure effective performance of teachers.
|Impact||Improved learning outcomes in secondary education.|
|Description of Outcome||Strengthened, integrated and more inclusive secondary teacher education system.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
The Project has made positive impacts on the quality of teacher training and classroom teaching. The Project interventions have made significant contributions in enhancing the quality of secondary education by improving the quality of teaching in Bangladesh. The CPD training programs given to more than 250,000 teachers have been found to change most of their traditional way of teaching style to participatory way of teaching learning practices. Besides, teachers are found to use teaching aids on a regular basis. As an impact of the training, more student participation through classrooms presentations and discussions are observed. Interviews with students reveal that the learning has improved through introduction of participatory teaching and learning mode in the class rooms. Data from the field assessment shows that students' achievements in examinations have been improving continuously.
The revision of the B.Ed. Curriculum and Text Books, the Training of Trainers (TOT) Program and the overseas training provided through TQIP has been a catalyst for improving the capacity of all TTC Teacher Educators. Delivering CPD training and attending short courses at overseas institutions has further reinforced changes in pedagogy introduced with the revised B.Ed. and helped Teacher Educators to consolidate changes in teaching approaches. Teacher Educators use a range of participatory approaches and teaching aids in the classrooms and make more and better use of educational technologies provided by the Project.
The Project interventions have improved capacity of the TTCs to train and mentor district-level teachers to become Master Trainers through the HSTTI/TTC partnership. The involvement of Master Trainers has not only improved the capacity of TQIP to achieve its training targets within the time available but has also worked indirectly to improve teaching quality in schools. Sustainability is also secured through involvement of HSTTI and TTC experts in TOT and through developing a pool of trainers at local level.
The Project has re-focused the B.Ed. program to a teacher competency-informed, outcome-based program. By building capacity to deliver the B.Ed. through distance education including E-Learning technologies, the Project has been able to provide training access and support to remote teachers. The new B.Ed. program, in conjunction with TTC teacher educators as the primary Master Trainers of CPD in-service teacher training program has helped to achieve universal adoption of participatory teaching approaches.
The Project has succeeded in making impact on awareness of Inclusive Education and gender issues at the community level through a multi-pronged approach including training of SMC members, and the launch of the community awareness program on Zero Tolerance towards violation of rights of girl students and female teachers conducted by trainers who have recently returned from international training.
The project contributed to develop a national Teacher Education council (NTEC) to enhance quality of secondary education by developing Institutional Standards and Teacher standards.
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Strengthened teacher development institutional and organizational capacity for secondary schools and Madrasah
2. Enhanced teacher training programs and delivery systems.
3. Targeted support for inclusive education
4. Quality project management
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||Project has been implemented as per MTR. Two Annual Teacher performance report including madrasahs and two reports on Biennial census of all secondary schools with sex disaggregated data including madrasah has been published. Percentage of female members in SMC-20.87%. Total 34,151 (F-1814) (100%) head teachers already been trained in Mentoring and Monitoring teachers classroom performance. The progress of RPL is as follows: Opinions of different stakeholders, field officers and experts have been collected. RPL policy guideline have been prepared and approved by NTEC. Two draft RPL guides have been validated through workshop of Assessment Specialists. RPL implementation plan prepared.Total: 45,273 (96%) Teachers completed CPD training in agreed subjects (Including Schools & Madrasahs) of which female teachers are 9,837 (22%). TTC-University partnership was not feasible, therefore it was dropped. (REF: 10th PSC meeting dated 30.06.2016, RDPP Appendix 9, p. 111, 3.8). It has been replaced by introducing B.Ed. merit scholarship to attract good teacher in teaching profession. (REF: According to RDPP, p 7, 11, and Annex 11). The demonstration of the computer-aided learning (e-Learning resources) completed in 51 CCS cum e-Learning centers. Out of 51 CCS all (construction of one CCS dropped) construction work completed 100%. Computer, Furniture and other equipment distributed in all 51 CCSs. In 2015-2017, Scholarship of Pre-Service Teachers training has been provided to total 825 (total achievement 92%) (female- 669, 81%) teachers including 86 Small Ethnic Community (SEC) Teachers (F-13, 15%). Final NTEC draft law is approved by SHED for submitting to the Parliament. Studies completed. Stakeholder consultation workshop held in 23 November 2018.22 B. Ed. Textbooks printed and distributed. From 2014 to June 2017, STC training provided to 2,146 (72%) teachers and there are no available teachers to enroll in the training. 3 TTCs have been developed into center of excellence (CoE) in 3 subjects (English, Math and Science). Research work completed in all CoEs. TTCs conducted training on research methodology and ICT digital contents based on B.Ed. Curriculum. All the Overseas Training (OST) activities completed. Procurement of goods and services for 3 CoEs are completed except a few packages which are procured by concerned CoEs from their own fund.|
|Geographical Location||Nation-wide, Bandarban District, Barguna District, Bhola District, Brahmanbaria District, Chandpur District, Chapai Nawabganj District, Chengmi, Cox's Bazar District, Dhaka, Dinajpur District, Gazipur District, Gopalganj District, Habiganj District, Jaipurhat District, Jamalpur District, Jhenaidah District, Kishoreganj District, Kushtia District, Lalmonirhat District, Moulvibazar District, Naogaon, Netrakona District, Noakhali District, Panchagarh District, Pirojpur District, Satkhira District, Sunamganj District|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project has been categorized C because no large-scale civil works envisaged at the appraisal stage. As advised by Loan Review Mission, an environmental due diligence report (EDDR) on the environmental risks and impacts of 51 cluster center schools (CCS)/E-learning centers were prepared and disclosed. The PMU organized a training workshop on Environment Safeguards to build the capacity of Head Teachers of 51 schools, Executive Engineers/Assistant Engineers of Education Engineering Department (EED) and officials of TQI, DSHE. The final environmental due diligence report (EDDR) was submitted in March 2019.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project is a category C for involuntary resettlement impacts. As no land acquisition or involuntary resettlement impacts are anticipated.|
|Indigenous Peoples||The project Category is B for indigenous people/Small Ethnic Communities (SECs). A Small Ethnic Community Planning Framework (SECPF) has been developed for the project to ensure that the project process embraces all IP/Ethnic Community groups as beneficiaries.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Consultations were organized to prepare the project.|
|During Project Implementation||The project worked in partnership with multiple stakeholders such as school management committees and parent-teacher associations.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Ahad, Faiza|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Bangladesh Resident Mission|
Ministry of Education
Shikkha Bhaban, 16 Abdul Ghani Road
|Concept Clearance||14 Dec 2011|
|Fact Finding||29 Nov 2011 to 04 Dec 2011|
|MRM||26 Jan 2012|
|Approval||30 Mar 2012|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||01 Apr 2019|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|30 Mar 2012||02 Oct 2012||02 Nov 2012||31 Dec 2017||31 Dec 2018||21 Nov 2019|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||85.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||70.00||17 Jun 2022||45.63||0.00||100%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||17 Jun 2022||45.63||0.00||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
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Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Bangladesh: Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project||Validations of Project Completion Reports||Aug 2021|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Innovative Strategies for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia: Teacher Professional Development—Special Focus on Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka||Reports||Dec 2017|
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Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor | Address||Executing Agency||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|GD 309: WA 00036 Payment to RFL||Loan 2859||17 Jan 2017||PRAN-RFL | 105 Middle Badda, Dhaka - 1212, Banglade Sh Bangladesh||Ministry of Education||137,541.32||137,323.52|
|Individual Consultant(International) as Institutional and Organizational Strengthening Specialist Team Leader, Contract No. SD-313, WA 0100||Loan 2859||27 Feb 2017||Dr. M. Amanullah Khan | 304/1 Sovereign Point Court, Doncaster, 3108. Australia||Ministry of Education||111,100.00||—|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project||Procurement Plans||May 2013|