ADB is helping Bangladesh improve the quality of training for secondary school teachers in the country. The project will focus on improving teacher competencies, enhancing the learning environment, and advancing student performance, particularly in science, mathematics, and English language studies. It will also pilot computer-aided learning.
|Project Name||Second Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Education - Secondary
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Gender equity|
With the approval of the National Education Policy (NEP), the government has embarked on a comprehensive reform process to strengthen access, quality, equity and relevance of education in Bangladesh. In 2011 a new phase of the primary education reform program started, with ADB as one of the key partners. The TQI-I and TQI-II projects are core building blocks to strengthen quality of secondary education in line with the reforms proposed in the NEP. Building on TQI-I achievements and gaps, TQI-II includes the following features to enhance teacher quality: (i) establishing partnerships between universities and teacher training colleges (TTCs) to enhance content and pedagogical knowledge of teachers and recognizing prior learning within an integrated teacher development framework; (ii) developing one of the TTCs as a center of excellence for teaching English; (iii) introducing teacher and head teacher competencies, and institutionalizing teacher classroom performance monitoring by head teachers; (iv) piloting computer aided learning to support the government's large investments envisaged in the use of computers and multi-media to enhance teaching and learning; (v) providing incentives to enhance inclusive education; and (vi) strengthening teaching and learning and equity by enhancing the use of innovation development fund.
TQI-II will by developing a strengthened, integrated and more inclusive teacher education system, support improved learning outcomes in secondary education. TQI-II has the following four components: (i) strengthened teacher development and institutional and organizational capacity to ensure registration of all teachers, establishment of a robust accreditation system for quality assurance of training providers, and application of newly acquired knowledge by teachers; (ii) enhanced teacher training programs and delivery systems (pre-service, in-service and CPD) to ensure synergy of training programs to meet agreed teacher and head teacher competencies; (iii) targeted support for inclusive education to increase the proportion of female teachers and support for remedial teaching where student performance is low; and (iv) quality project management for effective implementation and effective monitoring and reporting.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Secondary education prepares students for employment at entry level and serves as a foundation for those who aspire for advanced studies. In Bangladesh, steady growth in primary education over the last three decades has resulted in a concomitant expansion of the number of secondary schools, teachers, and enrolments. Bangladesh had 19,040 secondary schools (up from 18,500 in 2005) and 8,146 madrashas (religious schools which include Dakhil for 6-10 grades and Alim for grades 11 and 12) with a total enrolment of 7.9 million (53.2% girls) and 1.7 million (57% girls), respectively in 2010. The gross enrolment rate was about 47% (girls 49%) in 2010 up from [43% (47% for girls) in 2005]. Dropout rates have declined from around 80% in 2006 (83% for girls) to around 57% (54% for girls) in 2010 for secondary grades 6 10. The pass rates for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) have increased from 60% in 2006 to about 82% in 2011, for the higher secondary certificate (HSC) from 59% in 2005 to 75% in 2011.
The total number of secondary school teachers was 218,011 in 2010 (declined from 238,158 in 2005). The proportion of female teachers has increased gradually from 20% in 2005 to 23% in 2010. While the government policy of achieving 20% of all teachers in rural areas and 40% in urban areas with female teachers has been almost achieved, there are several upazials and schools that are yet to achieve this target. With the enormous growth in the number of secondary institutions in recent years, the Government's administrative and supervisory capacity has stretched, and there is recognition that it is inadequate to fulfil its responsibilities effectively. There is also recognition that there is a need for effective monitoring and supervision at all levels to ensure quality assurance including monitoring and supervision of teacher training institutions and teachers. The percentage of untrained teachers has declined from about 60% in 2004 to 32.6% in 1010, which is still unacceptably high.
While Bangladesh has made significant progress in providing access to secondary education and achieved gender parity up to grade 10, the quality of teaching, and hence student learning, continues to be a major concern. Students who complete secondary education are unprepared to enter the workforce in higher job categories, or to continue to tertiary education. Poor and disadvantaged students are most affected since they have limited educational options, cannot afford additional tuition, and usually come from a social background which perceives less value of education. While girls' enrolment has improved significantly, their performance and retention deteriorate particularly after grade 9. In some areas, more girls are in schools than boys, which will require measures to ensure boys attend and complete secondary education.
The ongoing Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI-I) has strengthened the capacity of a large number of secondary teachers through targeting classroom level teaching and learning with a continuous professional development (CPD) approach which includes supporting and monitoring the usage of new participatory teaching approaches of participants in the classroom. According to an initial assessment by the TQI-I project this has resulted in considerable changes in the classroom. Acknowledging the challenges of improving the quality of teachers, the Government established a National Teacher Education Commission (NTEC). With the support of TQI-I, a Nongovernment Teachers Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA) was established by an Act to improve the teacher recruitment system. However, an integrated quality assurance system along with an integrated secondary teacher management information system and teacher performance monitoring system is yet to be established and made operational to ensure effective performance of teachers.
|Impact||Improved learning outcomes in secondary education.|
|Description of Outcome||Strengthened, integrated and more inclusive secondary teacher education system.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||The creation of a strengthened, integrated and more inclusive secondary teacher education system is 100% dependent on the development of an effective teaching council (NTEC). Plans have been drawn up by the TL/DTL as to how a strengthened NTEC would function and the effect that this would have on the overall project outcome (see Making Change Genuinely Sustainable A Preliminary Analysis of the Second Teaching Quality Improvement Project ).|
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Strengthened teacher development institutional and organizational capacity for secondary schools and Madrasah
2. Enhanced teacher training programs and delivery systems.
3. Targeted support for inclusive education
4. Quality project management
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
79.4% training completed and others activities ongoing. Project will be completed in time and within the Budget. 1st Biennial Teachers census completed and the report published in 2013.2nd Biennial teachers census started and will be completed in time.
Competency Standard Approved by NTEC on November 2015.Draft Subject based Teachers Competency Standard prepared.
One year Bachelor of Education curriculum revised .Revised B-Ed curricular is Approved by NU and implemented from January 2017.
RPL policy guideline is approved by MoE and
RPL Crediting method is under process.
Revised STC target is 3000 as per Aide Memoire 2015.
37424 of which Female-8254 (22%).93% CPD training has been completed.
15 no. 100% Completed, 05 no. 50% completed and the rest 07 are under process of construction.
Except computer for 12 no. of E-lab almost all computer and equipment has been distributed and Furniture will be distributed soon.
100% Construction completed in 16 no. of CCS. 50% completed in 06 CCS.
Computer and other equipment have been distributed in all 24 no. of CCS.
Furniture will be distributed soon.
1st and 2nd round of orientation of selected TTCs completed and implementation plan with budget breakup received from 3 COEs.
Strategic plans approved by COE Committee.
21 female out of total 85 no. of Teachers were awarded with scholarship in 2016.According to Aide Memoire the revised target of total scholarship is 600.
BANBEIS Report as on 2015.
Under TQI-1 some steps had been taken to develop screening mechanism for TTCs. Formal approval is needed for this action.
Preparation of cost Model for the Carrier Path is ongoing.
During MTR 2014 of the Project Head Teachers Training Target has been Revised as 34000 and training was done for 34000.
Partnership arrangement has been dropped due to practical complexity in the process of implementation. Instead of partnership arrangement B-Ed merit scholarship has been introduced in 2016 as agreed by the Aide Memoire. It may be extended up to 2017.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project has been categorized under Category C'|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project has been categorized under Category C'|
|Indigenous Peoples||The project has been categorized under Category B'|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Consultations were organized to prepare the project.|
|During Project Implementation||The project will work in partnership with multiple stakeholders such as school management committees and parent-teacher associations.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Rahman, S.M. Ebadur|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Bangladesh Resident Mission|
Ministry of Education
Shikkha Bhaban, 16 Abdul Ghani Road
|Concept Clearance||14 Dec 2011|
|Fact Finding||29 Nov 2011 to 04 Dec 2011|
|MRM||26 Jan 2012|
|Approval||30 Mar 2012|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||29 Mar 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|30 Mar 2012||02 Oct 2012||02 Nov 2012||31 Dec 2017||31 Dec 2018||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||85.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||70.00||30 Mar 2012||41.14||0.00||81%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||30 Mar 2012||42.78||0.00||84%|
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