The goal of the Program is to improve the living conditions and well-being of number of people int he conflict affected areas by restoring basic social infrstructure, community and public services, and livelihoods. The Program will provide basic needs in the conflict-affected areas through income-generation activities through rural roads, water supply and sanitation, community development and institutional infrastructure.
|Project Name||Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program (Project grant)|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Grant
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Transport - Road transport (non-urban)
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The goal of the Program is to improve the living conditions and well-being of number of people int he conflict affected areas by restoring basic social infrstructure, community and public services, and livelihoods. The Program will provide basic needs in the conflict-affected areas through income-generation activities through rural roads, water supply and sanitation, community development and institutional infrastructure.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Nepal has made significant progress in combating poverty and improving the standard of living even in a conflict environment. This is evidenced by increases in per capita income and consumption for all quintiles of the population. However, progress has been uneven with districts far removed from the center having fewer economic opportunities and poorer service
delivery. As a result, the most isolated people, disadvantaged women, ethnic groups, and castes have benefited less from development interventions. Similarly, political and administrative reforms have been inadequate to improve service delivery, transparency, accountability, and inclusiveness. Nepal, with a Gini coefficient of 47.3 in 2003, has the highest
rate of inequality in Asia. In the aftermath of armed conflict, Nepal has shown commitment and pragmatism in its efforts to tackle both the political and development agenda, as evidenced by actions taken to bring about electoral and administrative reform aimed at increasing the effectiveness of poverty reduction policies, service delivery, and inclusive growth. Nonetheless, continuing attention to policies that influence economic opportunities and public service delivery to improve inclusion and governance is required.
The Government's Three-Year Interim Plan forms the basis for the economic and social transformation of Nepal. The country has one of the lowest road densities for a landlocked country, with some villages as far as 13 days walk from the nearest road. The lack of connectivity is a serious constraint for economic development and social inclusion. The assessment made under the Milennnium Development Goals indicates the need for additional 30,000 kilometers (km) of rural roads by 2015. The country currently has about 22,000 km of rural roads. Road standards vary significantly. Less than half are motorable and of this only about 60% are categorized as all-weather. The need for development of rural transport, particularly of rural roads, is thus huge and will require a major investment in the medium term.
The country operations business plan of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for Nepal for 2008 2010 foresees that substantial peace and development dividends could be gained by the economy in the coming years. The proposed Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program (RRRSDP) builds on ADB's key role in supporting the processes for institutionalizing good governance and inclusive development for poverty reduction, to which the Government has demonstrated commitment. By extending support, ADB will provide muchneeded resources for the state building process and poverty reduction by simultaneously (i) improving the policy environment for inclusive growth, and (ii) reconstructing and rehabilitating rural infrastructure.
|Impact||Reduce rural poverty in hill, mountain, and terai districts where isolation and hardship are common|
|Description of Outcome||Improved connectivity, enhanced economic and employment opportunities, and increased access to market and social services of rural communities.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Project implementation closed on 30 June 2013. ADB's PCR has been circulated to the Board of Director on 12 August 2014.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Improved rural roads
2. Developed and improved community-based supplementary rural infrastructure
3. Enhanced equity, employment, and income opportunities for the poor and disadvantaged
4. Strengthened institutional capacity of Ministry of Local Development, Department of Local Infrastructure and Agricultural Roads, (DOLIDAR), DDCs, and communities
5. Improved project management
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
A total of 43 rural roads totaling 837 km selected for construction, of which 826 km completed and the remaining being completed using govt resource.
Fifteen motorable bridges (405 meters) selected, 8 (155 m) of which completed, remaining being completed by using govt resource.
Construction of 364 water supply schemes completed.
Construction of 288 trail bridges completed. 213 supplementary infrasttructures also completed.
Participation and representation of women in various planning and management committees almost meets the target with women 28% in VICCC, 37% in RBG leadership position (33% target), and 39% women in RBGs as against the 50% target.
Of the total VIUGs formed, women representation is 38% and most of them hold leadership positions.
170 SHG have been formed. Representation of women in SHG is 69%. (Dalit 14.61%, Janajati 45.82% and Madeshi 0.15%)
Laborers received wage in 30 days.
All RBG members were insured.
Men and women received equal wage in roads.
Details of skill training were given. There are 3,963 members from all SHG of which 2,727 (69%) are female. Almost all the members were provided LEST meeting targets.
Representation of women is 41%, and that of disadvantaged and ethnic groups is about 63% in rural roads and SIs.
All DDCs provided project orientation and awareness training. Total 22,614 persons received the training.
Five regional workshops on these subjects have been completed. Refresher training/workshops were done.
Three training on water quality testing implemented. Regular site visits were undertaken for strengthening quality control and O&M.
Piloting of SWAp for rural road maintenance has already been started in seven pilot districts.
Four individual consultants were recruited in April 2008 and assisted PMU up to 31 December 2012.
CISC were fielded in December 2008 and mobilized up to December 2012.
25% women staff in 20 DISTs and DPOs. Water supply and sanitation (WSS) engineers and social mobilizers (25% women) were fielded in 18 non-core districts.
CISC prepared 20 manuals and guidelines on accounting, rural roads, environmental screening, initial environmental examination and resettlement. PCU also revised the DRILP procedural manual to suit the Project.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||Initial environmental examinations carried out for the core subprojects demonstrate that the investment Project is not likely to cause any significant environmental impacts since several safeguards are incorporated in the project design. At the selection stage, subprojects excluded those that (i) exceeded thresholds warranting environmental impact assessments, or (ii) were designated environmentally sensitive areas. RRRSDP provided technical and financial support to ensure that initial environmental examinations are conducted and mitigation measures implemented to meet the Government standards and ADB's environment policies. Most subprojects were designed and implemented using the LEP approach, which minimized construction impact on the environment. Project activities were independently monitored to ensure compliance with the environmental assessment and review procedures. In addition, postproject environmental monitoring were carried out and funded under the project as part of an effective environmental safeguard mechanism.|
Resettlement plans for three core subprojects as well as a resettlement framework for the Project were prepared. For subproject involved any land acquisition/resettlement, appropriate resettlement plan was prepared, publicly disclosed to those affected, and submitted to the
Asian Development Bank (ADB) in accordance with the resettlement framework and ADB's Involuntary Resettlement Policy (1995). All involuntary land acquisition were compensated and those affected assisted. The required compensation was substantially completed before award of civil works contracts and fully completed thereafter, while other rehabilitation activities were continued during project construction. The Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads (DOLIDAR) submitted semiannual progress reports on resettlement plan implementation.
Subprojects did not have adverse impact on the socioeconomic condition of indigenous people. The improved road network augmented access of indigenous communities to various services, including health, education, and market opportunities. Inclusive
measures were included in the project design to maximize project benefits and opportunities to indigenous groups through mainstreaming and
An indigenous peoples framework was prepared for the Project to provide policy and procedures to screen subproject impacts on indigenous people and prepare planning documents during project implementation in full compliance with ADB's Policy on Indigenous Peoples (1998).
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||
The Project promoted participatory approaches through the decentralized government process. Subprojects were prioritized through existing village development committee participation in finalizing district transport master plans or other sectoral development plans. The Project aimed at increasing participation of local stakeholders, particularly socially excluded and poor, in the decision making through a community/social mobilization program. Workshops run by social mobilizers helped develop local stakeholders' confidence to speak at meetings and participate in collective decision making. Communities were trained by social mobilizers to acquire skills to run community consultations. Within building groups, the capacity of men and women to voice their concerns was strengthened through training they received from the social mobilization and capacitybuilding activities.
The Project promoted economic and social inclusion by ensuring proportional representation of historically marginalized/disadvantaged population for all aspects of project planning and implementation, particularly in employment and income generation activities. Local social mobilizers organized the poor and marginalized into groups. Village infrastructure user groups had proportional representation of local caste/ethnic groups along the project influence zone to (i) ensure participation of the poor and vulnerable groups in decision-making, (ii) raise their social capital and access to other development opportunities, and (iii) increase their use of health and education facilities in local areas.
|During Project Implementation||The Project built local ownership and maintenance of infrastructure work by employing local membership-based district and village user groups in planning, implementation, and monitoring of construction work. Community-based monitoring systems and public audit were introduced to prevent corruption and increase social accountability and transparency.|
|Consulting Services||Five individual consultants will be recruited by Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) to advance project preparatory activities at the central and district levels including (i) 132 person-months domestic consulting services in procurement, financial management, resettlement, and environmental management; and (ii) 9 person-months international consulting services on development of a joint donor coordination framework. The other consultants consisting of 54 person-months international and 626 person-months domestic consulting services will be recruited by PCU through quality and cost-based selection process. The government will undertake advance action for recruiting consultants to facilitate the Project's start up.|
|Procurement||Goods, related services, and civil works will be procured in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidellines. All small and widely dispersed civil works amounting to $30,000 will be undertakenby the community, following guidelines on community participation in procurement. In few cases involving more complex works such as bridge construction, high retaining walls, hard rock cutting, civil works contracts will be required, which will be procured by District Implementation Unit on the basis of national competitive bidding among contractors in accordance with Government's procurement procedures acceptable to ADB.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Gewali, Govinda P.|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Nepal Resident Mission|
Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development
Nepal Ministry of Local Development
Mr. Krishna Gyawali
|Concept Clearance||31 Oct 2006|
|Fact Finding||08 Jun 2007 to 22 Jun 2007|
|MRM||26 Sep 2007|
|Approval||12 Dec 2007|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||26 Feb 2008|
|Last PDS Update||17 Sep 2015|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|12 Dec 2007||14 Jan 2008||01 Feb 2008||30 Jun 2012||30 Jun 2013||23 Jun 2014|
|Financing Plan||Grant Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||88.40||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||50.00||12 Dec 2007||NaN||19.79||91%|
|Cofinancing||20.00||12 Dec 2007||NaN||0.00||0%|
|Status of Covenants|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|04 Dec 2007||21 Apr 2008||09 Jul 2008||31 Mar 2012||31 Oct 2013||25 Nov 2014|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||10.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||0.00||04 Dec 2007||0.00||9.06||100%|
|Cofinancing||10.00||04 Dec 2007||0.00||9.06||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Nepal: Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program||Validations of Project Completion Reports||Sep 2015|
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
Nepal: Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program - 2010The Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program (RRRSDP) in Nepal was designed to accelerate poverty reduction and socially inclusive development in the hill, mountain, and Terai districts to support the government's post-conflict development priorities.