ADB is helping Bangladesh continue to improve the quality and reach of its primary education system. The program covers pre-primary through Grade V primary education. It will help improve student learning outcomes and completion rates, reduce disparities across all regions, decentralize school governance and management, and institutionalize human resource development.
|Project Name||Third Primary Education Development Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Grant
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Education / Education sector development - Pre-primary and primary - Pre-primary and primary - social protection initiatives
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Gender equity|
|Description||The Third Primary Education Development Project (PEDP III) is a follow-on to the ongoing Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDP II), the first sub-sector wide approach (SWAp) in the education sector in Bangladesh. The Project will contribute to the Government of Bangladesh (government) five year (FY2012-FY2016) Third Primary Education Development Program (the government's program or the Program) covering one year preprimary education to five year primary education. Together with eight other development partners (DPs), the Project will support the government's priorities of improving student learning outcomes and completion rates, and reducing disparities across all regions. The Government's program will focus on achieving key outputs level results and other implementation steps to policy and institutional changes that are essential to meet the Government's objective of providing quality education for all children|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Bangladesh has one of the largest primary school systems in the world, with over 16 million children enrolled in over 80,000 primary schools. Considerable progress has been made in improving access to free and compulsory formal and nonformal primary education. Gross and net enrollment rates in primary education improved from 93.7% and 87.2% in 2005 to 103.5% and 93.9% respectively in 2009. Bangladesh was one of the few countries to achieve gender parity up to the secondary level by 2005. Despite significant progress in access, high internal inefficiencies persist - high student dropout and repetition rates, low completion and high student and teacher absenteeism. Two rounds of national student assessment indicate low student achievements of students in grades 3 and 5, although the results are improving. The Education for All: National Plan of Action II (NPA II), 2007 notes major weaknesses in indicators of classroom achievement and a growing quality divide between rural and urban schools.
The Government's National Education Policy (NEP) envisages to address the above systemic issues. It plans to (i) achieve education for all (EFA) by 2015; and (ii) ensure that every child is able to start primary school by 2011. NEP will help to enhance primary school education by reducing disparities between different types of schools, which will help to upgrade the workforce to meet national economic goals. There is an urgent need to reduce targeted rural and urban poverty by supporting the expansion and improvement of primary school education in disadvantaged locations in rural communities and urban slums, thus generating enhanced employment possibilities. The major internal benefits foreseen are: reduced repetition and dropout, improved completion rates of primary schooling, enhanced net enrolment rates from inclusive interventions for out-of-school children, and improved transition rates to secondary level education, all as a result of improved quality and relevance of education in schools with initial input deficits.
The government's Program will build on PEDP II, which is jointly funded by the Government and 11 development partners (DPs), including ADB as the lead DP. PEDP II established a strong foundation for a SWAp by bringing the government and DPs for the first time under one program from the previously 27 projects including 8 funded by different DPs in primary education. PEDP II has achieved the following: (i) mainstreaming minimum service standards across government administered primary schools through the introduction of primary school quality level (PSQL) standards; (ii) fair, transparent, and efficient teacher recruitment system for government primary schools which was also commended by Transparency International; (iii) introduction of results based management (RBM) which has led to the publication of the Annual Sector Performance Report covering progress on key performance indicators (KPIs) and PSQL indicators; (iv) initiation of the school level improvement plans (SLIPs) including school grants to support decentralized planning to address needs of participating schools; and (v) introduction of the terminal examination at the end of Grade 5, and implementation of the national student assessment every alternate year to assess progress on student achievements in grades 3 and 5.
Lessons identified from PEDP II including those from the Sector Assistance Performance Evaluation (SAPE) done in December 2008 are applied in the government's Program design: (i) carefully analyze the trade-offs between improvements in access and quality since quality improvement is a slower process that requires more direct support to schools and classrooms; (ii) mainstream core activities with built-in flexibility and provision to pilot and upscale implementation to ensure more sustainability; (iii) build on the improvements in governance under PEDP II (improved teacher recruitment, introduction of RBM, introduction of school improvement planning) with a funding modality more closely aligned with the government system, and greater focus on results; (iv) broaden and deepen the government implementation capacity by nurturing leadership at all levels, strengthening coordination at the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) level, and targeting high quality technical assistance (TA); (v) further reduce transaction costs through more stringent partnership arrangements; and (vi) provide adequate flexibility and time for preparation, transitional arrangements, and sequencing of reforms.
The proposed government's program which will be supported by the Project will build on PEDPII achievement and experience. It will (i) broaden the scope to include one year pre-primary and non-formal and second chance primary education; (ii) deepen quality improvement through improved teaching and learning practices in the classroom including improved assessment; (iii) enhance school governance, accountability and community mobilization; (iv) provide targeted support to disadvantaged groups and locations; (v) institutionalize human resource development (HRD) to incentivize the system and enhance capacity; (vi) deepen and institutionalize RBM and monitoring and evaluation mechanism at all levels; (vii) target and ensure effective utilization of TA and capacity support at all levels within an emerging decentralization framework; and (viii) enhance sub-sector management, coordination and greater alignment with the country system.
PEDP III will support the government's program using a project lending modality. This is best suited as: (i) interventions are more of investment nature and incremental steps toward reforms, rather than structural policy reforms, and (ii) the fiduciary environment requires close oversight by ADB, and therefore is not suitable for the use of program lending. However, to align with the salient features of the government's Program under a SWAp, PEDP III has incorporated the following innovative features.
|Impact||Quality education for all Bangladeshi children|
|Description of Outcome||
An efficient, inclusive, and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly
learning to all Bangladesh's children from preprimary through Grade 5 primary
|Progress Toward Outcome||
The Govt.-Development Partners' Joint Annual Review Mission (the JARM) of PEDP3 was held in June 2017 which concluded that overall programme progress is satisfactory, making important contributions to complex sector reforms, with notable achievements in quality related interventions despite challenges, and steadily progressing towards achieving program outcome.
The JARM assessed progress against key performance indicators (KPIs) and the Primary School Quality Level (PSQL) indicators and confirmed that most are on track to achieve the program objectives. The 2016 Annual Sector Performance Report (ASPR) showed progress against all four program components maintaining high levels of enrolment and good progress in completion, and in the number of government primary schools offering pre-primary education.
Overall performance of the program:
a) School access and participation continued to improve. Both the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) and Net Enrolment Rate (NER) increased in 2017. The GER was 112.1% (boys 109.3% and girls 115%) in 2016 up from 109.2% in 2015. The NER was 97.96% (boys 97.1% and girls 98.8%) in 2016 up from 97.94% in 2015. However, an education divide persists between regions (urban, urban slum, rural, and remote areas).
b) In 2016, there were 3.12 million pre-primary children enrolled, three times more than the enrolment of the PEDP3 baseline year in 2010. Nearly 100% of GPS and 99% NNPS now has been offering pre-primary education. The percentage of Grade 1 students with PPE also increased from 50% in 2012 to 87% in 2016. However, the quality of PPE remains as a challenge.
c) The student attendance rate has been improving over the past decade for both boys and girls. The attendance rate reached 87.5% (Boys 87.2% and Girls 87.7%) in 2016 compared to 86.9% in 2015.
d) The gender parity index was 1.05 for the GER and 1.02 for the NER in 2016, indicating that a higher percentage of girls than boys were attending primary school. However the gender gap has narrowed significantly compared to the PEDP3 baselines of 1.09 for the GER and 1.06 for the NER.
e) The primary education cycle completion rate rose from 60% in 2010 to 81% (Boys 77.7% and Girls 83.9%) in 2016, including a gain of nearly 5 percentage points between 2010 and 2016. Similar to the cycle completion rate, the overall trend of both cycle completion and survival to Grade 5 rates has risen significantly since 2010. The survival rate was 67.2% in 2010 and 82.1% (Boys 78.6% and Girls 85.4%) in 2016.
f) In 2016 repetition rate stood at 6.1% (Boys 6.4% and Girls 5.8%) in all grades, significantly improved from the PEDP3 baseline of 12.6%. The dropout rate has fallen markedly since 2008 (it was at approximately 50% in 2008) and 19.2% (Boys 22.3% and Girls 16.1%) in 2016. However, there remains an ongoing challenge as every 100 children who enter primary school only one fifth do not complete Grade 5.
g) Quality of learning remains the major challenge upon which sustaining gains in access depend. Although the pass rate of the Primary Education Completion Examination (PECE) has improved from 89% in 2009 to 98.51% in 2016, the available data from sample-based National Student Assessment (NSA) indicate low levels of learning.
h) The 2015 NSA demonstrated that in Bangla only 65% of Grade 3 students performed at Grade 3 level or above in 2015 compared to 68% in 2011 and 75% in 2013. Only less than one quarter of Grade 5 learners achieved at their grade level in 2015 (i.e. 23% in 2015, and 25% both in 2011 and 2013). In Mathematics, the main concern is that nearly 59% of Grade 3 learners and 90% of Grade 5 learners are far behind their expected grade level learning outcomes compared to 68% in 2011 and 75% in 2013.
i) Implementation was sound in some key reform areas including expansion of the Diploma in Primary Education (DPEd), significant increase in pre-primary education coverage, the provision of textbooks to more than 99% of schools for the fourth year running, School Level Improvement Plan (SLIP) grant allocation to 100% schools and progress on the qualitative elements of the needs-based school infrastructure.
|Description of Project Outputs||
Improved teaching and learning for all.
Reduced disparities and universal access and participation
Decentralized and effective organization of the primary education system
Improved program planning and management
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
DLIs' achievement status:
As of May 2017, in total 48 of the 54 Year 0 to Year 5 disbursement-linked indicators (DLIs) had been assessed as met. These are mainly in the areas of production and distribution of textbooks, implementation of Diploma in Primary Education, pre-primary education, decentralized school management and governance, conducting Annual Primary School Census, and ensuring sector finance. Needs-based infrastructure, strengthened grade 5 Primary Education Completion Exam (PECE), and teacher recruitment and deployment need more focused efforts to catch up with the objectives.
Implementation status for activities by component and sub-component:
(i) a) Each Child Learns (ECL): For the Financial Year 2016-17, ECL is expanding in 260 schools, out of which 180 experimental schools are from 9 DPEd districts where newly developed DPEd course would be introduced, and the remaining 80 schools would be from additional 4 districts where hopefully DPEd would be introduced during 2016-17.
b) School and Classroom-based Assessment: School and Classroom Based Formative Assessments are tools to improve the quality of teaching provided to children in primary schools. The formative assessments are a fundamental part of providing students and teachers with feedback on learning outcomes, a crucial element of the ECL model. The training on Assessment Methods and tools along with curriculum dissemination for 1760 field level officers and 33,150 Head Teachers completed. The piloting of Assessment Methods and tools started and the final report will be completed by June 2016.
c) Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened: NCTB has already taken care on IE and Gender perspectives in the revised primary curriculum and related textbooks of different grades.
d) Production and Distribution of Textbooks: Production and distribution of textbooks have improved significantly. This will be maintained and improved upon during PEDP-3. Textbooks based on the revised curriculum are being made available for distribution during PEDP-3 period.
e) ICT in Education: ICT based classroom in all Model schools of the country has been developed. Training for 15000 teachers and TOT for 250 persons are arranged this year. After this ICT training, both the girl and boy students will be benefitted.
f) Teacher Education and Development: Teacher Education and Development Plan provides teachers with the skills to implement more engaging teaching/learning, which in turn leads to higher learning outcomes.
(ii) a) Second Chance Education (SCE): A separate Division within DPE has been created for SCE. By the end of PEDP3, the aim is to have developed a ten years vision for reaching all out of school children in Bangladesh with quality education that meets their needs, and a responsive strategy based upon comparative evidence on models that work best to achieve this. Action Plan prepared for second chance education for three lakh children.
b) Pre-Primary Education (PPE) and Enrolment of Special Needs Children in PPE: Recognizing the benefits of good quality PPE, the Government pledged to provide one year of free pre-primary education to 5 years old at GPS. Since the start of PEDP3 new teachers have been recruited and trained with existing teachers to move towards ensuring one teacher per primary school is qualified to teach the PPE class. A total of 11,272 special needs children (boys 6,322 and girls 4,905) were enrolled in the DPE managed pre-primary classes in 2016.
c) Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education: 884 Head Teachers training completed and 20,000 more Head Teachers will be trained in this year. 75 officials in 3 batches (25 officials in each batch) have been trained on Gender Tool Kit. 100 teachers in 4 batches (25 in each batch) received TOT on IE including autism. Initiatives have been taken to address issues for ethnic minority groups. This year MLE materials Text Books in five languages (Tripura, Chakma, Marma, Garo and Sadri) developed (in final stage) from Pre- Primary to Grade-One and it will be extended to Grade-Three level gradually.
d) Education in Emergencies: Education in Emergency issues is included in whole program years. Total revised budget in RDPP 156,122.20. Transitional schools constructed-2 and 80 temporary school house construction is under process for schooling during disasters or in Emergencies constructed.
e) Communication and social mobilization: Workshop on communication and social mobilization (awareness activities among SMC, PTA & others) held. Printing of posters and leaflets for social mobilization is in progress. Education week, Education Fair, IPT program have been done as the part of Social mobilization activities Inter-school cultural & sports competition.
f) Targeted Stipends: Primary education stipend project (3rd phase) approved by ECNEC meeting only on 8th March 2016 and it will be distributed to 486 Upazilas.
g) School Health and School Feeding: School based health checks are undertaken once a year by local healthcare providers of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). Each school also receives a locally purchased first aid kit and basic first-aid training. School Health Training conducted for 1680 teachers. Student's health check-up done half yearly basis.
h) Need-based School Environment (School Physical Environment): MoPME approved the National standards of water, sanitation and hygiene for schools in Bangladesh. Therefore, construction of separate toilets and urinals now replaced by WASH blocks (each WASH block consist of three toilets, two urinals and hand & foot wash facilities) are being constructed by the Department of Public Health and Engineering (DPHE). A total of 3,302 WASH Blocks constructed in this reporting period.
i) Need based Infrastructure Development: New classrooms are being constructed, unusable classrooms are being reconstructed. A total of 3,156 additional classrooms construction completed rooms constructed in schools and the approved design of the school building under PEDP-3 is accessible for all children. 2,671 additional classrooms completed and Core labor standards including equal wage for women and men for equal amount of work was ensured.
(iii) a) Field Level Offices Strengthened: From January 2014 to March 2016 a total number of 14193 persons have been recruited where 9939 are female. A total of 58 female employees have been taken training on Office Management and Computer Personnel Training Course. At least a session on gender and inclusive education will be incorporated in the next different training courses. 9,939 of field level women staff deployed and 9,932 trained. 12,000 of field level staff demonstrate adequate knowledge of gender and IE needs.
b) Decentralized School Management and Governance: A series of targets have been set. Success stories of School Level Improvement Plans (SLIPs) to improve the quality of education will be shared with other schools. Recently the SLIP/UPEP guidelines have been reviewed. The gender responsive issues have been incorporated in the reviewed guidelines.
c) School-level leadership and development: Activities to promote School Level Leadership are at present counseling units and completed 1,010 batch of leadership training.
d) Organizational Review and Strengthening: MoPME and DPE capacity is strengthened to ensure gender and inclusive education concerns are integrated within all components of PEDP3.
e) Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination (PECE) Strengthened: All students (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) complete their primary education; therefore, encourage all students (boys and girls) to complete their education by participating in terminal examinations. A total of 2,788,432 or 98.51% passed in PECE (girls 1,518,210 or 54.45% and boys 1,270,222 or 45.55%).
f) Teacher Recruitment, Promotion and Deployment: The existing recruitment rule has a provision to recruit 60% female teachers and educational qualification for woman relaxed up to HSC. On the other hand, there is a quota reserve for the ethnic or minorities. So, teachers are being recruited according to the recruitment rule.
g) Annual Primary School Census (APSC): All the data collected through the APSC was segregated by gender perspective (all, boys and girls). In addition, APSC also collected physically challenged, ethnic minority children enrollment in the mainstream schooling (all, boys and girls) from 2005 to 2015.
h) National Student's Assessment: National student's assessments, when conducted effectively, provide a means for tracking learning outcomes over time for students at specific points in the primary cycle, currently in Bangladesh grades 3 and 5. Gender disaggregated data are available for all relevant KPIs and Non-KPIs from 2005 to 2015.
(iv) a) Strengthening Monitoring Functions: All reports published by M&E division disaggregated data by gender (all, boys and girls), ethnicity, disabilities (6 types for all, boys and girls) and other disadvantaged groups (considering the low performing Upazilas) are available since 2005 to 2015.
b) Human Resource Development (HRD): The gender training modules will be incorporated in HRD training in decision making the participation of women will be ensured. According to government rules, the quota for women candidates is being ensured to fill up post at all stage in primary education. Total 1,85,436 female employees are working in primary education sector.
c) Public-Private Partnerships (PPP): PPP arrangements evaluated and mechanism improved as well as customizes the PPP framework for consultation workshops on the GO-NGO Collaboration following a PPE guidelines.
|Geographical Location||Nation-wide, Borishal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Dhaka Division, Khulna Division, Rajshahi Division, Rangpur Division, Sylhet Division|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
The project is environment category B. A common harmonized
environmental management framework has been prepared. The PEDP III, based on needs
assessment and agreed criteria, will support construction of new schools and dormitories; repair
and maintenance of existing schools; and provision of safe drinking water, sanitation and
drainage facilities. With adequate arrangements for site selection, design, construction, and
operation and maintenance, the PEDP III is not expected to create any significant or long-term
adverse environmental impact. Consistent with government and ADB policy, the Local
Government and Engineering Department will monitor implementation of the environment
management framework semiannually. The department has the capacity to implement the
framework. It will prepare and disclose periodic monitoring reports that describe progress on
implementation of the framework, and compliance issues and corrective actions, if any.
The project is category B for involuntary resettlement. Social safeguard
issues may arise from the extension of existing and creation of new physical facilities.
Bangladesh s schools are generally established on designated government-owned land, free
from other temporary or permanent use. The PEDP II did not trigger the Involuntary
Resettlement Policy (1995) because beneficiary communities provided lands, where needed.
Under the PEDP III, local communities are expected to continue to contribute land. Consistent
with government and ADB policy, a harmonized resettlement framework has been prepared
covering school selection guidelines; guidelines for obtaining different types of land;
compensation principles and standards; monitoring and reporting; and consultation,
participation, and disclosure.
The project is category B for indigenous people. Three districts
Bandarban, Rangamati, and Khagrachari of Chittagong Hill Tracts are home to the largest
proportion of the country s small indigenous population. The rest are dispersed in the plains
districts of greater Sylhet, Mymensingh, and the north and southwest regions, where they
generally live in isolated settlements among the mainstream population. Under the PEDP II, a
plan for expanding education of tribal children was developed for extension and rehabilitation of
existing government schools for out-of-school children; capacity building of indigenous/tribal
institutions; social mobilization to motivate parents to send children to school; supplementary
reading materials development in indigenous language; and recruitment and training of teachers
in the hill tracts. Building on this experience, a harmonized indigenous peoples plan consistent
with government and ADB policies has been prepared, to ensure that program activities in
general and physical works in particular do not adversely affect indigenous
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Rahman, S.M. Ebadur|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Bangladesh Resident Mission|
Ministry of Primary and Mass Education
Mirpur-2, Dhaka, Bangladesh
|Concept Clearance||05 Jun 2008|
|Fact Finding||20 Jan 2011 to 05 Feb 2011|
|MRM||26 Apr 2011|
|Approval||05 Jul 2011|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||15 Jan 2009|
|Last PDS Update||26 Sep 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|05 Jul 2011||15 Sep 2011||05 Dec 2011||31 Dec 2016||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||7,920.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||320.00||05 Jul 2011||301.42||0.00||100%|
|Cofinancing||300.00||05 Jul 2011||301.42||0.00||100%|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|20 May 2015||08 Jun 2015||01 Jul 2015||31 Dec 2017||30 Jun 2018||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||2,185.20||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||120.00||20 May 2015||88.89||0.00||73%|
|Cofinancing||400.00||20 May 2015||88.88||0.00||73%|
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Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Bangladesh: Third Primary Education Development Project||Papers and Briefs||Oct 2012|
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
ADB Approves Additional Loan to Boost Primary Education in BangladeshADB has approved a $120 million loan in additional funding for a 6-year government-led program to improve the quality and reach of primary education in Bangladesh.
No tenders for this project were found.
No contracts awarded for this project were found
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Third Primary Education Development Project and Third Primary Education Development Project - Additional Financing: Procurement Plan||Procurement Plans||Apr 2015|
|Third Primary Education Development Project||Procurement Plans||Jun 2013|