Kolkata is the largest city in the state of West Bengal and the seventh largest in India. It has a population of 4.5 million and contributes at least 13% of West Bengal's gross domestic product. The city is and will remain the dominant commercial and financial hub in the state. Although its livability has improved, the quality of basic urban services remains below national standards. The gap is particularly noticeable in water supply and sewerage services in regard to coverage, continuity, and quality. This affects the city's ability to attract investment, facilitate trade, and create jobs, as well as its productivity, its competitiveness, and, most importantly, its quality of life and welfare. Investment and policy gaps hinder how effectively and efficiently institutions deliver services, and how well the policy framework creates an enabling environment for better service delivery and sustainability.
|Project Name||Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program (Facility Concept)|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Water supply and sanitation
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||Kolkata is the largest city in the state of West Bengal and the seventh largest in India. It has a population of 4.5 million and contributes at least 13% of West Bengal's gross domestic product. The city is and will remain the dominant commercial and financial hub in the state. Although its livability has improved, the quality of basic urban services remains below national standards. The gap is particularly noticeable in water supply and sewerage services in regard to coverage, continuity, and quality. This affects the city's ability to attract investment, facilitate trade, and create jobs, as well as its productivity, its competitiveness, and, most importantly, its quality of life and welfare. Investment and policy gaps hinder how effectively and efficiently institutions deliver services, and how well the policy framework creates an enabling environment for better service delivery and sustainability. These limitations have been manageable, but Kolkata's expanding economy and deficient investment and maintenance over the years have made narrowing the gaps more urgent. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), created to administer the city under the KMC Act in 1980, is responsible for delivering water and sewerage services. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been working with KMC since 2000, but only regarding sewerage. The partnership has yielded good results. KMC has a strategy, sector road map, policy framework, and investment plan to address gaps in operational efficiency, institutional effectiveness, policy, and sustainability. The investment program combines physical and other investments. KMC wants ADB to continue its role as a key financing and advisory partner.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||Water supply and sewerage services in Kolkata have excelled the national average, particularly in terms of quality, continuity, and coverage. The city also has a good, low-cost sewage treatment system. However, service provision is not uniform across the city and is increasingly strained by economic expansion. As shown in Table 1, service is better in the city center than in the periphery. This is both a problem and an opportunity. The problem is that the number of vulnerable households has grown rapidly in the periphery as the population has declined in the center, which is subserviced. The opportunity arises from the KMC's ability to generate revenues from a still-large population with higher income in the center, with which to fund investment in the periphery. The city has worked hard to narrow service disparities. Efforts started with two loans provided in 2000 and 2006 for the Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project (KEIP), which financed the renovation of 564 kilometers (km) of the sewer_drain network and the rehabilitation of three sewage treatment plants, raising the percentage of the population with direct sewer connection from 31% in 2001 to 43% in 2011. The service coverage for water supply is higher than for sewerage, but disparities between central and peripheral areas remain, particularly in service continuity. Unless addressed rapidly, these disparities will widen as population shifts from the center to the periphery.|
|Impact||Improved access to water supply and sanitation in KMC|
|Description of Outcome||Improved water supply, sewerage, and drainage service quality and operational sustainability in selected areas of KMC|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Tranche 1 implementation ongoing.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Inefficient water supply assets rehabilitated.
Sewerage extension to peripheral areas continued.
Financial and project management capacity further developed.
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||Under Tranche 1, five civil works packages awarded, three of which started construction in 2014.|
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Consultations have been held throughout the planning and design stage with Mayor, PMU, KMC officials, and state government departments like Pollution Control Board (PCB). Walk through informal discussions have been held with the local community along the proposed transmission stretch to assess the kind of impacts.|
|During Project Implementation||The design and technique adopted by KMC has helped address and mitigate potential social issues associated with works. However, information disclosure is an integral part of safeguards planning during project implementation. Consultations and information disclosure will be carried out at different stages of the project cycle. Consultation measures envisaged for the project are: (i) KMC will inform through its officials and contractor about the construction schedule to minimize the temporary impacts; (ii) PMU will ensure that the affected people's if any will be identified and informed about the assistance to be provided for any temporary loss of livelihood; and (iii) attempts will be made to ensure that vulnerable groups, if any, will understand the process and that their specific needs will be taken in to consideration.|
|Consulting Services||All consultants will be recruited accroding to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time). The procurement plan indicates the threshold, mode of procurement, and consultant selection, review procedures, and contract packages.|
|Procurement||All procurement of goods and works will be undertaken in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2013, as amended from time to time). The concurred standard bididng documents for the national competitive bidding will be used throughout the Facility period.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Pokhrel, Neeta|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban Development and Water Division, SARD|
Kolkata Municipal Corporation
5, S.N.Banerjee Road
Kolkata 700 013, India
|Fact Finding||24 May 2012 to 31 May 2012|
|MRM||14 Aug 2012|
|Approval||26 Sep 2013|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||18 Mar 2015|
MFF Facility Concept 0075-IND
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||570.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program||Initial Poverty and Social Analysis||Oct 2013|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program: Gender Action Plan for Tranche 1 Project||Gender Action Plans||Sep 2013|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program||Reports and Recommendations of the President||Sep 2013|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program: Project Data Sheet (हिन्दी)||Translated PDS||Sep 2013|
|Kolkata Environment Improvement Program: Periodic Financing Request 1||Periodic Financing Request Reports||Aug 2013|
|Framework Financing Agreement for Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program||Framework Financing Agreement||Aug 2013|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program: Procurement Plan||Procurement Plans||Aug 2013|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program||Facility Administration Manual||Aug 2013|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program (Tranche 1): Resettlement Plan for Sewearage and Drainage Subproject||Resettlement Plans||Jun 2013|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program||Resettlement Frameworks||May 2012|
|Kolkata Environmental Improvement Investment Program||Environmental Assessment and Review Framework||May 2012|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.