Cambodia: Rural Roads Improvement Project III
The project will rehabilitate about 360 kilometers (km) of rural roads in five provinces (Kampong Cham, Kratie, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, and Tboung Khmum) to paved condition. The rehabilitated roads will provide poor rural provinces with a disaster and climate-resilient, safer, and cost-effective rural road network with all-year access to markets and other social services. The proposed RRIP III will continue to support sustainability of this rural road network through: (i) a rural road maintenance regime in the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD); and (ii) a community-based road safety program. These initiatives have already been established by MRD through earlier ADB-financed projects, RRIP and RRIP II. The project will also support an HIV/AIDS and human trafficking awareness and prevention program (HHTPP). The feasibility study of the proposed project was completed through the ongoing loan for RRIP II.
Long, Piseth Vou
Southeast Asia Department
Request for information
|Project Name||Rural Roads Improvement Project III|
|Country / Economy||Cambodia
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Grant
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Transport / Road transport (non-urban)
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The project will rehabilitate about 360 kilometers (km) of rural roads in five provinces (Kampong Cham, Kratie, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, and Tboung Khmum) to paved condition. The rehabilitated roads will provide poor rural provinces with a disaster and climate-resilient, safer, and cost-effective rural road network with all-year access to markets and other social services. The proposed RRIP III will continue to support sustainability of this rural road network through: (i) a rural road maintenance regime in the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD); and (ii) a community-based road safety program. These initiatives have already been established by MRD through earlier ADB-financed projects, RRIP and RRIP II. The project will also support an HIV/AIDS and human trafficking awareness and prevention program (HHTPP). The feasibility study of the proposed project was completed through the ongoing loan for RRIP II.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Sector context. The principal mode of transport in Cambodia is by road. The road network of about 61,500 km includes (i) about 7,260 km of national roads (primary national highways), (ii) about 9,000 km of provincial roads (secondary national highways), and (iii) about 45,200 km of rural roads. The Ministry of Public Works and Transport manages the national and provincial roads, while MRD manages the rural roads.
By the early 1990s, several years of civil war had severely deteriorated the country's road network. Since 1992, with assistance from ADB and other multilateral and bilateral development partners, the government focused on rehabilitating the core national infrastructure required for the economy to develop in a sustainable manner. As of 2017, development efforts over the past 25 years have brought the paved national and provincial road network to about 8,526 km in length, or about 52.3% of the total national and provincial road network.
However, the rural road network needs further improvement as well. Only about 2,000 km, or 4.4% of rural roads have been paved as of 2017. Rural roads have a daily traffic volume of about 200 3,000 passenger car units, and motorcycles and three-wheel vehicles account for more than 80% of the traffic. The annual growth rate of the traffic volume is 4% 6% and is projected to increase by 7% 12% by 2025, requiring more paved rural roads to accommodate future traffic.
Because of rapid economic development and activity, overloading of cargo vehicles has been the major cause of road damage in Cambodia since 2007. This is also a significant issue for rural roads because trucks that haul agricultural products and carry quarry materials for construction tend to be overloaded.
Cambodia experiences frequent flooding during the wet season, severely damaging most of the laterite rural roads and making them impassable. Such damage causes significant livelihood losses for rural residents and entails repair costs. Thus, road design requires structural changes to specifically deal with disaster risk and adapt to future precipitation increases caused by climate change.
In 2009, ADB initiated a systematic approach to rehabilitating rural roads to paved condition and helping the government develop a sustainable road network. In 2010, ADB approved RRIP, for rehabilitating 505 km of rural roads with four outputs: (i) improved road asset management; (ii) increased road safety and safeguards; (iii) enhanced climate change adaptation; and (iv) efficient project management. This first project was cofinanced in parallel by (i) the Government of the Republic of Korea, through the Export-Import Bank of Korea (KEXIM), which financed the civil works of rehabilitating 280 km of rural roads and related consulting services; and (ii) the Nordic Development Fund (NDF), which financed the climate change adaptation output.
In 2016, after 5 years of project implementation, MRD successfully completed all ADB- and KEXIM-financed outputs on time and within budget, building substantial capacity in multiple areas of project implementation. Capacity building was highly notable for the Social and Environment Office (SEO), which was established in 2012 under MRD to implement social and environment safeguards, road safety, HIV prevention activities, and gender-related activities.
MRD showed strong ownership in designing the succeeding project using mostly the loan proceeds of the first project. ADB approved RRIP II in 2014 and additional cofinancing in 2015. RRIP II will rehabilitate 1,200 km of rural roads. Its cofinanciers are Agence Fran aise de D veloppement (French Development Agency), the Government of Australia, KEXIM, and the NDF. Both RRIP and RRIP II followed a similar design with similar outputs and aimed to provide reliable all-year road access from provincial towns and agricultural rural areas to markets, employment centers, and social services. RRIP covered seven rural provinces, with RRIP II including an additional three beneficiary provinces. Implementation of RRIP II is on track.
|Impact||The needs of the population served and economic development promoted|
|Description of Outcome||All-weather access in rural areas of the 5 project provinces improved|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
All 8 civil works contracts have been awarded and civil works are ongoing. The cumulative overall project progress as of 31 July 2021 is 32.20% which is 5.72% ahead of planned progress.
The consultant commenced services on 1 April 2019. Detailed design of project roads of 5 civil works contracts were completed. The consultant's services are ongoing.
The civil works contract CW-B2 was completed by 31 October 2020 and certificate of completion was issued by the EA on 23 December 2020. As of 31 July 2021, the actual progress achieved under each contract was CW-A, 49.38%; CW-B1, 30.63%; CW-C1, 24.26%, CW-C2, 26.77%, CW-C3, 20.11%; CW-D, 18.66% and CW-E, 37.81%.
On 22-24 March 2021, ADB held a virtual loan review mission to assess overall project implementation.
|Description of Project Outputs||
Rural roads improved
Rural road asset management improved
Awareness of road safety and potential social problems strengthened
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
For Output 1, all 7 ongoing civil works contracts have achieved satisfactory progress. The civil works contract CW-B2 was completed by 31 October 2020 and certificate of completion was issued by the EA on 23 December 2020. As of 31 July 2021, the actual progress achieved under each ongoing contract is as follows: CW-A, 49.38%; CW-B1, 30.63%; CW-C1, 24.26%, CW-C2, 26.77%, CW-C3, 20.11%; CW-D, 18.66% and CW-E, 37.81%.
All civil work contracts employed the subcontractors for HHTPP awareness training. Due
to the COVID-19 cases in the provinces, gathering of people for meeting and training all
over Cambodia have been challenging. Thus, only small group training had been conducted. The CSSD (subcontractor of Contract CW-A and CW-E) and CDOH (subcontractor of CW-D) implemented HIV/AIDS and human trafficking awareness training during this month.
For Output 2, actual progress as of 31 July 2021 is 5%.
For Output 3, actual progress as of 31 July 2021 is 14.20%. On 8 July 2021 and 23 July 2021, Social Environment Office staff met with local authorities to request their cooperation with raising awareness of road safety program.
|Geographical Location||Phnom Penh|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project is confirmed as category B. An IEE and an EMP, that covers all project roads, has been prepared. Works will be limited to the existing right of way so negative construction environmental impacts will be short-term and localized, such as access and traffic disruption, noise and dust. Potentially sensitive environmental receptors along road corridors, such as villages, schools, pagodas, river crossings have been identified and specific mitigation measures identified.MRD through their Social and Environmental Office (SEO) and Provincial Departments of Rural Development (PDRDs) are responsible for implementation of the EMP with technical support from DDIS Environmental Specialist. The SEO have built up capacity through the implementation of the two previous projects (RRIP and RRIP II) and identified priority training needs for RRIP3 during consultation meetings with ADB.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project is categorized as C for involuntary resettlement impacts. Based on preliminary design, a poverty and social assessment due diligence was carried out. Additional resettlement due diligence with walk-over surveys has been carried out to confirm that there will be no land acquisition and resettlement impacts, as the construction works will be located within the boundaries of existing right of way assigned to rural roads and owned by the MRD, on government land. The MRD prepared the community participation framework (CPF) with criteria for voluntary land donation, in some cases of minor realignment, which will require narrow strips of land to be made available. Impact on structures will be avoided through road design modifications. Specific requirements for meaningful consultations with communities are provide in the CPF. The Government ensured that the project would not finance any road entailing involuntary resettlement or land acquisition, and that the due diligence report will be updated upon completion of the detailed engineering design to ensure no resettlement or land acquisition impact and submitted to ADB for review and concurrence.|
|Indigenous Peoples||The project is categorized as C for indigenous peoples. The Government ensured that the project would not finance any road entailing impact on ethnic minorities or indigenous peoples based on the due diligence. The due diligence report will be updated upon completion of detailed engineering design to ensure no impact on ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples and submitted to ADB for review and concurrence. The communities will largely benefit from the improved paved rural road resulting from such benefits as reduced exposure to dust and improved health.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||All consultants will be recruited according to ADB''s Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and Procurement Regulations for ADB Borrowers (2017, as amended from time to time).|
|Procurement||All procurement of goods and works will be undertaken in accordance with ADB''s Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and Procurement Regulations for ADB Borrowers (2017, as amended from time to time).|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Long, Piseth Vou|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Cambodia Resident Mission|
Ministry of Rural Development
H. E. Try Meng
169 Corner Road Soviet Blvd.
|Concept Clearance||12 Feb 2018|
|Fact Finding||05 Feb 2018 to 16 Feb 2018|
|MRM||18 Apr 2018|
|Approval||29 Jun 2018|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||20 Sep 2021|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|29 Jun 2018||06 Jul 2018||29 Aug 2018||30 Jun 2026||-||09 Jun 2020|
|Financing Plan||Grant Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||1.50||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||1.50||11 Aug 2022||1.50||0.00||100%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||11 Aug 2022||1.50||0.00||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|29 Jun 2018||06 Jul 2018||29 Aug 2018||30 Jun 2026||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||64.50||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||58.50||11 Aug 2022||53.03||0.00||91%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||11 Aug 2022||34.44||0.00||59%|
|Status of Covenants|
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|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|Loan 3678-CAM (COL) & Grant 0581-CAM (SF): Rural Roads Improvement Project III [CW-C1, CW-C2, CW-C3]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||05 Jun 2020||06 Jul 2020|
|Loan 3678-CAM (COL) & Grant 0581-CAM (SF): Rural Roads Improvement Project III [CW-D; CW-E]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||25 Mar 2020||11 May 2020|
|Loan 3678-CAM (COL) & Grant 0581-CAM (SF): Rural Roads Improvement Project III [2019-RRIP III-OBC-02: CW-A; 2019-RRIP III-OBC-03: CW-B1]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||24 Jan 2020||10 Mar 2020|
|Loan 3678-CAM (COL) & Grant 0581-CAM (SF): Rural Roads Improvement Project III [2019-RRIP III-OCB-04: CW-C]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||14 Jan 2020||28 Feb 2020|
|42334-CAM: Rural Roads Improvement Project III (RRIP-III) [CW-B2]||Invitation for Bids||Closed||27 Jun 2018||27 Jul 2018|
|Consulting Services for Implementation||Firm - Consulting||Closed||26 Jun 2018||25 Jul 2018|
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor | Address||Executing Agency||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|CW-C1: IMPROVE 2 ROAD, 30.0 KM (PREY VENG)||Loan 3678||21 Dec 2020||BANTEAY SREI ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION | SANGKAT CHEYCHUMNEAS, KHAN DAUN PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||4,645,950.97||4,645,950.97|
|CW-C2: IMPROVE 2 ROADS, 28.1 KM (PREY VENG)||Loan 3678||21 Dec 2020||BANTEAY SREI ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION | SANGKAT CHEYCHUMNEAS, KHAN DAUN PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||4,745,644.95||4,745,644.95|
|CW-3: IMPROVE 1 ROAD, 15.1 KM (PREY VENG)||Loan 3678||14 Oct 2020||BORE KHMER CONSTRUCTION DEVELOPMENT CO., LTD | #9 E2, STREET 128, SANGKAT MONOROM, KHAN 7, MAKARA, PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||1,966,836.39||1,966,836.39|
|IMPROVE 1 ROAD, 61.2 KM (KRATIE)||Loan 3678||17 Aug 2020||BENG MENG GROUP CO., LTD | #023 STREET PREAH NORODOM BLVD, KHAN CHOMKAMON, PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||8,914,545.60||8,914,545.60|
|CW-D: IMPROVE 4 ROADS, 57.2 KM (SVAY RIENG)||Loan 3678||06 Aug 2020||TAN KIM ENG CO., LTD. | SEREI SOPHORN, BENTEAY, MEANCHEY PROV CAMBODIA CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||8,955,210.35||8,955,210.35|
|CW-B2 IMPROVE 2 ROADS, 23.7 KM IN TBOUNG KHMUM||Loan 3678||03 May 2019||UNG SIM SIA CONSTRUCTION CO. LTD. | 97 STREET 143 SANGKAT OLYMPIC KHAN CHAMKAR MORN, PHNOM PENH CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||2,481,668.20||981,668.20|
|CW-B2 IMPROVE 2 ROADS 23.7 KM IN TBOUNG KHMUM||Grant 0581||26 Apr 2019||UNG SIM SIA CONSTRUCTION CO. LTD. | 97 STREET 143 SANGKAT OLYMPIC KHAN CHAMBAR MORN PHNOM PENH CAMBODIA||Ministry of Rural Development||1,500,000.00||—|
|CS1 CONSULTING SERVICES FOR IMPLEMENTATION||Loan 3678||26 Mar 2019||KOREA CONSULTANTS INTERNATIONAL CO. LTD. | 7F SAERUNG TECHNOTOWN15, 401 SIMINDAE-RO DONGAN-GU, GYEONGGI, KOREA KOREA, REPUBLIC OF||Ministry of Rural Development||3,392,300.00||3,392,300.00|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Rural Roads Improvement Project III: Procurement Plan||Procurement Plans||May 2020|