Vanuatu is geographically located in the "ring of fire" and the "cyclone belt" of the Pacific. Overall, the country is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and is the world's most vulnerable country out of 111 countries, assessed according to the Commonwealth Vulnerability Index. It is at risk from a wide range of climate-related hazards - more than most other Pacific countries. These hazards include coastal erosion, tropical cyclones, floods, landslides, and drought, which are expected to increase in severity and frequency as a result of climate change, warranting emphasis on climate proofing of infrastructure, policy and institutional capacity building for disaster risk management, and improving climate resiliency.
|Project Name||Port Vila Urban Development Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban policy, institutional and capacity development
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
Vanuatu is geographically located in the "ring of fire" and the "cyclone belt" of the Pacific. Overall, the country is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and is the world's most vulnerable country out of 111 countries, assessed according to the Commonwealth Vulnerability Index. It is at risk from a wide range of climate-related hazards - more than most other Pacific countries. These hazards include coastal erosion, tropical cyclones, floods, landslides, and drought, which are expected to increase in severity and frequency as a result of climate change, warranting emphasis on climate proofing of infrastructure, policy and institutional capacity building for disaster risk management, and improving climate resiliency. Added to vulnerability posed by its location, a combination of rapid economic growth, a young and rapidly growing population, urban drift, urban land speculation, agricultural intensification, deforestation, weak coastal management systems, poor sewage and waste disposal, and the use of imported energy sources threaten the integrity of the natural resource base. Key environmental management challenges include: (i) climate change and sea level rise; (ii) soil erosion and land degradation; (iii) coastal erosion; (iv) loss of forests; (v) loss of biological diversity; (vi) water pollution; (vii) waste disposal and recycling; (viii) reef destruction and overexploitation of marine resources; and (ix) natural disasters. Even now, an increasing frequency and severity of flooding has been reported in the country due to tropical cyclones and storm surges. Flooding and inundation of urban and rural areas have negative economic impacts as national investments in infrastructure and agriculture are located primarily in low-lying coastal areas around the perimeter of the major islands.
Vanuatu does not have an infrastructure master plan or land use plan for its major cities. Although a number of Government agencies have recently undertaken a planning/zoning exercise for Luganville. Port Vila, the capital city, is yet to develop a master plan or establish any form of land zoning to guide urban development, though there is a plan to extend the city 3 km beyond the current town boundaries under a Ministry of Lands (MOL)-led exercise. The coordinated development of Port Vila will require substantial domestic capacity in long-term urban planning and building of institutional infrastructure. Likewise, several of the infrastructure and urban services (such as water supply, sanitation, and drainage), will require comprehensive planning.
Port Vila has a piped water supply system that is adequate for current needs of the urban population - a private concessionaire runs the water supply system and provides reliable services. In contrast, drainage and sanitation have so far not received public and private support in terms of planning and investment. The city has no storm water drainage system, and the city often suffers from flooding with the increased frequency of heavy rains. Sanitation is an emerging problem because of the rapidly growing urban population whose health needs (including hygiene and sanitation) are a priority, on one hand, and the extremely limited sanitation services provided by the government, on the other. The Port Vila municipal authority has only two trucks to collect the city's garbage from residential and commercial areas, which are insufficient for the city's need and pose a major public health hazard. Likewise, there is no national sanitation policy, and no formal building codes are followed in Port Vila. As a result, monitoring of the safety tanks in the city's buildings are not conducted by any authority.
The Government has a Priorities and Action Agenda (PAA), which was developed with ADB support, for the period 2006-2015, and a medium-term action program for the PAA, entitled "Planning Long, Acting Short," which prioritizes a set of near- and medium-term development initiatives.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy|
|Impact||The PPTA will result in improved access to, and delivery of, drainage and sanitation services to the residents of Port Vila and surrounding areas.|
|Description of Outcome||The PPTA will produce the design of a high-priority storm water drainage and sanitation project for Port Vila.|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||
The PPTA will produce two major outputs through the conduct of various activities within a 12-month period, as listed below.
Output 1: Integrated spatial (physical) and services urban master plan for Port Vila, with focus on drainage and sanitation (6 months)
To produce Output 1, the following activities will be carried out:
(i)Review and assessment of the current situation in the urban sector, with focus on drainage and sanitation, including, but not limited to, the following:
-Review of existing drainage and sanitation facilities and services;
-Review and analysis of current demand for drainage and sanitation services and preparation of demand forecasts for the next 5,10, and 15 years;
-Review and assessment of the adequacy and condition and capacity of the drainage and sanitation facilities and adequacy of the available services, including those related to hygiene promotion and awareness building;
-Review and assessment of available technology solutions for sanitation (e.g., waterless toilets and non-septic tank solutions) and management arrangements for septic tanks, disposal of septic tank sludge and solids from waterless toilets);
-Review of the domestic market chain for the supply of household sanitation products;
-Review of climate change (CC) impacts on the water sector, particularly drainage and sanitation, and identification of CC risks to the proposed investment project;
-Review of existing policies and regulations governing the urban sector, including the Building Code and other policies and legislation/regulations related to drainage and sanitation, and assessment of the scope for amendments to existing regulations, standards, and guidelines to ensure effective and cost-efficient delivery of drainage and sanitation services in Port Vila;
-Review and assessment of current institutional arrangements and responsibilities for operation and maintenance (O&M) of drainage and sanitation facilities, and scope for public-private partnerships, including opportunities for civil society involvement in the delivery of drainage and sanitation services;
-Conduct of a household survey that will generate gender-disaggregated data for use in socioeconomic profiling of Project beneficiaries, including their hygiene and sanitation knowledge, attitudes, and practices;
-Assessment of pro-poor output-based aid mechanisms that will encourage poor households to connect to drainage and common sanitation facilities;
-Review of existing financing mechanisms for O&M of drainage and sanitation facilities and identification of options for financing O&M;
(ii) Identification of key issues and constraints, including projected climate change risks, as well as development opportunities to address identified problems in the urban and peri-urban areas of Port Vila, particularly those related to drainage and sanitation;
(iii) Drafting of a 'climate-proofed' National and Sanitation Policy, which includes provisions for promoting improved hygiene practices and incorporates provisions for the mainstreaming of CC adaptation into the policy in order to reduce identified CC risks and contribute to the sustainable O&M of the drainage and sanitation facilities to be built, upgraded, or rehabilitated under the Project;
(iv) Updating of the Building Code to make it responsive to the needs of the urban and peri-urban areas in Port Vila residents, including those in informal settlements through the incorporation of provisions for appropriate technology solutions for on-site sanitation;
(v) Preparation of an integrated spatial (physical) and services master plan for Port Vila, which will provide the broad development strategy, and serve as the basis for the preparation of a detailed drainage and sanitation master plan, for Port Vila;
(vi) Formulation of a detailed drainage and sanitation master plan, based on a prior national assessment of sanitation access in Vanuatu utilizing the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Program
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation||Stakeholder workshops were conducted at citical stages of the technical assistance to seek community views to guide the investment project design.|
|Consulting Services||Consultants' work ongoing.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Blaik, Stephen|
|Responsible ADB Department||Pacific Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban, Social Development & Public Management Division, PARD|
Ministry of Infrastructure and Public Utilities
Mr. Jotham Napat
PMB 057, Port Vila, Vanuatu
|Concept Clearance||15 Jul 2009|
|Fact Finding||10 Aug 2009 to 14 Aug 2009|
|Approval||10 Sep 2009|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||24 Sep 2009|
|Last PDS Update||11 Sep 2015|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|10 Sep 2009||08 Oct 2009||08 Oct 2009||31 Oct 2010||30 Sep 2015||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|1,460,000.00||750,000.00||100,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||2,310,000.00||10 Sep 2009||2,186,159.08|
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