fbpx 43072-013: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project) | Asian Development Bank

Kiribati: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)

Sovereign (Public) Project | 43072-013 Status: Active

ADB is helping Kiribati improve public health in South Tarawa, a series of islets along the southern rim of Tarawa Atoll. The project will improve sanitation infrastructure, sewerage and maintenance capacity, and public hygiene. It will help reduce waterborne diseases, including diarrhea in babies, which contribute to Kiribati having one of the highest infant mortality rates in the Pacific.

Project Details

Project Officer
Narayan, Vijay Pacific Department Request for information
Country
  • Kiribati
Sector
  • Water and other urban infrastructure and services
 
Project Name South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)
Project Number 43072-013
Country Kiribati
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 0263-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project
Government of Australia US$ 13.95 million
Loan 2795-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project
concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund US$ 7.56 million
Grant 0387-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)
Multi-Donor Trust Fund under the Water Financing Partnership Facility US$ 610,000.00
Grant 0502-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project - Additional Financing
concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund US$ 2.80 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban sewerage

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description South Tarawa is formed by a series of islets located along the southern rim of Tarawa Atoll with a total land area of just 15.76 square kilometers (km2). High population density, poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitation infrastructure have contributed to a high prevalence of waterborne disease among the local population and degradation of the natural environment. The proposed Project will support improvements to the health of communities in South Tarawa. This will be achieved through enhanced community engagement in, and public awareness of, hygiene and sanitation; rehabilitation and upgrading of sanitation infrastructure; capacity development to improve sector planning, and operation and maintenance of urban water supply and sanitation services; and the creation of a sanitation maintenance fund to ensure adequate financing for sanitation infrastructure maintenance.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Almost 50% of Kiribati's population of 103,466 lives in South Tarawa, the country's political and economic center. South Tarawa's main urban areas of Bairiki, Betio and Bikenibeu have a combined population of 24,171. Rapid urbanization has resulted in an annual average population growth rate of 4.4% since 2005. The average population density in South Tarawa is 3,193 /km2, and it is as high as 8,990/km2 in the most densely settled urban areas. Population pressures combined with uncontrolled urban settlement have resulted in overcrowding that has put stress on critical public infrastructure and the natural environment.

The public sewerage system operated by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) services around one quarter of South Tarawa's population. To conserve limited freshwater supplies, a saltwater reticulation system supplies seawater for toilet flushing. The traditional practice of defecating in the open is widespread and is reportedly engaged in by almost half of South Tarawa's population. Leakage of effluent from both pit latrines and poorly constructed and maintained septic tanks contributes to contamination of groundwater.

The health impacts of poor sanitation infrastructure in South Tarawa are evident. Inadequate residential sanitation infrastructure is a key contributor to contamination of freshwater and near-shore areas of the lagoon. Inadequate handwashing and consumption of untreated water and contaminated shellfish have resulted in widespread gastrointestinal disease. Typhoid outbreaks occurred in South Tarawa in 2009 and 2010. The infant mortality rate in Kiribati of 46 per 1,000 live births is among the highest in the Pacific. This can be attributed in part to infantile diarrhea, which is directly linked to inadequate sanitation and poor public hygiene.

Weak capacity to manage existing sanitation assets and operations among PUB and Ministry of Public Works and Utilities (MPWU) staff has contributed to chronic under performance of the sewerage system. Sewerage services are provided free of charge to customers. Operations and maintenance (O&M) activities are funded through government transfers, while periodic capital investments in system rehabilitation and upgrading have been externally financed by development partners. The current situation has resulted in low sustainability. In the absence of adequate resources, no preventive or routine maintenance is carried out, and instead, maintenance is deferred until the system fails. This situation imposes high costs on both the government and the local population in terms of lost productivity, health expenditures, and degradation of freshwater resources and coastal areas.

The problem of inadequate sanitation infrastructure is compounded by limited public awareness of the links between sanitation, hygiene, and health. This has resulted in low demand and willingness to pay for improved sanitation facilities. Households do not perceive the full benefits associated with improved sewerage services, nor the large negative externalities linked to behavior such as beach defecation and not washing one's hands. A widespread and sustained public awareness and education campaign specifically targeting groups such as women and children is required to bring about improved hygiene behavior and to create demand for improved sanitation.

The proposed project is consistent with the Kiribati Development Plan 2012-2015, which commits to improving health outcomes, strengthening governance in the provision of public services, and investing in social and economic infrastructure. The Project is also included in the Kiribati Country Partnership Strategy 2010-2014 which aims to reduce poverty and promote economic opportunity by improving the delivery of sustainable infrastructure services. The proposed Project supports the country's National Sanitation Policy; National Water Resources Policy; and the Government of Kiribati's Water Supply, Sanitation, and Solid Waste Management Program for South Tarawa that was developed in 2010 with assistance from the Pacific Infrastructure Advisory Centre. This program is intended to support a whole-of-sector approach and promote effective coordination of development partner-supported activities in the sector.

Impact Improved health of South Tarawa''s population.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome South Tarawa''s urban population has enhanced access to improved sanitation infrastructure and services.
Progress Toward Outcome

1) Civil Works package 1 - Rehabilitation of Sewerage & Saltwater Systems package commenced in 2014 and was expected to be completed by December 2017. However, time extension was allowed as the original Bill of Quantities (BOQ) had indicated approx. 11 km of sewer to be cleaned; whereas the actual length was 28 km. Progress was slow due the deep deposits of sediment in the mains and equipment breakdowns. Following the inspection of the entire sewer system, it was concluded that the project works should include complete cleaning to all pipes to avoid re-sedimentation. Works were 100% completed by in July 2018.

2) Civil Works package 2 - Upgrading of three Ocean Outfalls was awarded in August 2016 and completed in August 2018.

3) Onsite Sanitation Septic Tanks installations Contract for this package was signed in April 2018 to install the initial lot of 10 tanks and further variation signed in Dec 2018 for installation additional 10 -12 tanks funds permitting. Work on onsite septic tank toilets were concluded in December 2019 with a total of 16 installations.

4) Community engagement and awareness activities, and the capacity development activities for the Public Utilities Board staff concluded in July 2019.

5) Establishment of the Sanitation Maintenance Fund was finally concluded in December 2019 with the disbursement of the seed Funding from ADB. The second reading of the proposed Bill was passed by the Parliament in November 2018. Supporting Financial Management logistics were finalized and endorsed by the relevant steering committee in early 2019. The SMF account was then set up and made operational in November 2019 with both the ADB and government counterpart funding deposited in the account.

Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Sanitation and hygiene practices among South Tarawa's population improved.

2. Wastewater in South Tarawa effectively managed by the PUB.

3. MPWU and PUB will have the capacity to plan and manage water and sanitation services.

4. Adequate funds available to PUB to finance required sanitation O&M.

5. Project management and implementation services by MFED and MPWU ensure effective and efficient project implementation.

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Works on the first civil works on Rehabilitation of Sewerage & Saltwater Systems package commenced in 2014 and completed in July 2018. Second civil works package for Upgrading of Ocean Outfalls has been awarded in July 2016 and completed in August 2018. Behavior change will have to be monitored going forward.

The project has a gender action plan that also reports on % of women related activities and achievements.

Completed

Ongoing.

Ongoing community engagement carried out by the Project's Community Mobilizers with various communities involving majority of women.

--A fair number of female staff recruited as community mobilizers and trained together with PMU and PIU staff.

--Completed

--Policy paper on Sanitation Maintenance Fund was introduced to parliament in August 2018. Passed through a 2nd reading in November 2018. Sanitation Maintenance Fund was established in November 2019.

In progress. Plans for tariff increase approved and in place. Will be implemented in phases.

Completed

PUB staff have been working closely with the contractor on sewer cleaning as part of their work program.

Geographical Location Nation-wide, Bairiki Town, Betio Town, Bikenibeu Town, Tarawa
Safeguard Categories
Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement B
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects ICB01 Environment safeguard systems are in place with the updated IEE disclosed in August 2014. The BEIA and Contractor's EMP are also approved and compliance thereof is satisfactory as monitored through the up to date semi-annual safeguards reports. The BEIA for ICB02 was approved and disclosed on the ADB website in December 2015. Semi-annual safeguard reporting compliance is satisfactory, and the recent January-June 2018 report has been disclosed.
Involuntary Resettlement The updated RP was approved and disclosed in August 2014. The consultants Social Safeguard specialist issued a full report on the status of IR issues relevant to the project in April 2015 "South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Social Safeguards Training". Progress is monitored closely through semi-annual safeguard reports.
Indigenous Peoples The project is classified as category C. The people of South Tarawa are from a single ethnic group. There are no customary, cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that set South Tarawa apart from the rest of Kiribati society.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design All relevant stakeholders were consulted during the project preparation discussions.
During Project Implementation Adequate consultations were carried out with stakeholders and communities during project implementation.
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

Project Management and Implementaiton Consultants commenced services on 16 July 2012.

Recruitment of Sanitation and Gender Community Mobilizers posted on 8 March 2013.

Procurement Detailed design and preparation of bid documents for the core sub-projects under preparation.
Responsible ADB Officer Narayan, Vijay
Responsible ADB Department Pacific Department
Responsible ADB Division Pacific Subregional Office in Suva, Fiji
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
[email protected]
P.O. Box 67
Bairiki, Tarawa
Kiribati
Timetable
Concept Clearance 07 Mar 2011
Fact Finding 09 Jun 2011 to 16 Jun 2011
MRM 29 Jun 2011
Approval 17 Oct 2011
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 16 Apr 2010
Last PDS Update 11 May 2020

Grant 0263-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2011 03 May 2012 01 Jun 2012 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 14.92 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 17 Oct 2011 0.00 13.82 99%
Counterpart 0.97 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 13.95 17 Oct 2011 0.00 12.94 93%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Grant 0387-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
14 May 2014 26 Sep 2014 19 Nov 2014 30 Jun 2019 31 Dec 2019 -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 0.61 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 14 May 2014 0.00 0.35 57%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.61 14 May 2014 0.00 0.40 66%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Grant 0502-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2016 12 Dec 2016 30 Jan 2017 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 3.03 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 2.80 17 Oct 2016 2.80 0.00 100%
Counterpart 0.23 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 17 Oct 2016 2.80 0.00 100%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Loan 2795-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2011 03 May 2012 01 Jun 2012 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 7.56 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 7.56 17 Oct 2011 6.30 0.00 96%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 17 Oct 2011 6.47 0.00 98%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.

In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

Title Document Type Document Date
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (For Year Ended 31 December 2018) Audited Project Financial Statements Jun 2019
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (For Year Ended 31 December 2017) Audited Project Financial Statements Jul 2018
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (For Year Ended 31 December 2016) Audited Project Financial Statements Jun 2017
Grant Agreement (Special Operations) for Grant 0502-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project - Additional Financing Grant Agreement Dec 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Project Administration Manual Project/Program Administration Manual Oct 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (Additional Financing): Report and Recommendation of the President Reports and Recommendations of the President Sep 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (Additional Financing): Gender Action Plan Gender Action Plans Sep 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Procurement Plan Procurement Plans Aug 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (For Year Ended 31 December 2015) Audited Project Financial Statements Jun 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (December 2014) Audited Project Financial Statements Jun 2015
Grant Agreement (Externally Financed) for South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (Additional Financing) Grant Agreement Sep 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (For Year Ended 31 December 2013) Audited Project Financial Statements Jun 2014
Loan Agreement (Special Operations) for South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Loan Agreement (Special Operations) May 2012
Grant Agreement (Externally Financed) for South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Grant Agreement May 2012
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Reports and Recommendations of the President Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Gender Action Plans Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Strategies Sep 2011

Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

Title Document Type Document Date
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (July-December 2019) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Dec 2019
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (January-June 2019) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Jul 2019
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (July-December 2018) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Jan 2019
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (January-June 2018) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Jun 2018
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (July-December 2017) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2018
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (January-June 2017) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Jul 2017
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (July-December 2016) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2017
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Safeguards Monitoring Report (January-June 2016) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Aug 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (July-December 2015) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (January-June 2015) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Sep 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project - Replacement of Three Sewage Outfall Pipe and Diffuser Assemblies: Basic Environmental Impact Assessment Initial Environmental Examination Sep 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (July-December 2014) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (January-June 2014) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Oct 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Betio, Bairiki, and Bikenibeu Sewer System Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Initial Environmental Examination Aug 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Betio, Bairiki, and Bikenibeu Sewer System Subproject Resettlement Plan Resettlement Plans Aug 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental Assessment and Review Framework (as of Board approval) Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Initial Environmental Examination (as of Board approval) Initial Environmental Examination Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Ocean Outfalls Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Plan (as of Board approval) Resettlement Plans Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Sewer System Rehabilitation Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Framework Resettlement Frameworks Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Resettlement Plan Resettlement Plans Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Framework (as of Board approval) Resettlement Frameworks Jun 2011

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.


The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.

Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
Loan Nos. 2975/2976-PAK:  Sindh Cities Improvement Investment Program - Tranche 2 [L-2975/76-PAK/WTP/ICB/B-1 and L-2975/76-PAK/WTM/ICB/B-2] Invitation for Bids Closed 13 Mar 2017 25 Apr 2017

Contracts Awarded

No contracts awarded for this project were found

Procurement Plan