India: Karnataka Integrated and Sustainable Water Resources Management Investment Program
The investment program will improve water availability to meet competing water demands in selected river basins in the state of Karnataka by implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM). It will improve water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture to provide economic opportunities to improve rural incomes.
South Asia Department
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|Project Name||Karnataka Integrated and Sustainable Water Resources Management Investment Program|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture and Natural Resources / Agriculture, natural resources and rural development
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The investment program will improve water availability to meet competing water demands in selected river basins in the state of Karnataka by implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM). It will improve water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture to provide economic opportunities to improve rural incomes.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
The state of Karnataka, in the south of India, has a population of 61.1 million and covers an area of 191,976 square kilometers (5.83% of the area of India). It is home to one-third of information technology of India and other service industries, and has a gross state domestic product (GSDP) at current prices of $97.1 billion (FY2012). The main contribution (about 53% in FY2012) to GSDP is from the service sector. The contribution of agriculture to GSDP is relatively small, at 16% in FY2012, and in a declining trend (from about 30% in FY2001). However, agriculture remains the main source of employment for 55% of the population and about 75% of the rural population. The state population is urbanizing; the urban population has increased from 34% to 39% from 2001 to 2011. The changing industrial structure and urbanization have had significant impact on the water balance in the state.
Competing Demands for Water Resources. The state is water-stressed, with increasing water demands from urban and industrial sectors. This is exacerbated by uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the predicted impacts of climate change. Although Karnataka has two major river basins (the Krishna and Cauvery), its water resources are limited (about 1,072 cubic meters [m3]/person/year in eastward flowing rivers). Droughts are frequent and 70% of the annual rainfall occurs from June to September. The water demand (particularly for industry and household water) is projected to increase by 40% from 37,419 million m3 in 2000 to 52,366 million m3 in 2025. These demands will cause a decline in the agricultural proportion of total water from 84% in 2000 to 73% by 2025. Meeting the anticipated rise in demand is a major challenge which, if unmet, may constrain sustainable economic growth.
Irrigated Agriculture. About 3.09 million hectares of land is under irrigation in Karnataka and over 84% of state water resources are used for agriculture. However, cropping intensities (110% to 125%) and water use efficiency (40%) are low, and the gross area irrigated in 2009 to 2010 is about 59% of the potential area. The irrigation sector suffers from deficient infrastructure (resulting from insufficient maintenance and lack of water control structures), management constraints (low service quality of operators), and limited promotion of water-saving crops and practices. Efficient distribution is impeded by inadequate implementation of command area development works and low participation of water users cooperative societies (WUCSs) in irrigation management. Improving irrigation water productivity requires (i) increasing water use efficiency, (ii) reducing the gap between the actual and potential area that can be irrigated, and (iii) promoting water-efficient techniques and technologies like drip irrigation. Greater efficiency will be required in water used for agriculture to meet the demands of other users, such as industry.
Vulnerability to Climate Change. The predicted impacts of climate change for Karnataka include increased temperatures and increased mean annual rainfall, and decreased and more variable monsoon rainfall. Overall, the investment program area is found to be vulnerable to increased incidence of seasonal droughts. This will heighten the requirement for a well-planned and methodical approach to water resources management. An integrated approach to water resources management is a means to reconcile varied and changing water uses and demands since it provides greater flexibility and adaptive capacity than conventional water resources management approaches.
Road Map, Investment Program, and Lending Modality. An IWRM road map will guide the strengthening of institutional and policy frameworks, capacity building, and development of modernized infrastructure. The road map, developed in consultation with senior management of Karnataka''s Water Resources Department (WRD) during project preparation, combines the Karnataka state water policy, 2002; the state medium-term plan; and the National Water Mission, 2011 to guide water sector investments of the state government'. The road map, through physical and nonphysical investments, will support the state to meet its objective of improved water resources management with milestone performance targets. To achieve this, the state has proposed an ambitious budget allocation of about $8.5 billion during FY2014 to FY2018 (in FY2014, the budgeted allocation is $2.06 billion). The government has requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to contribute to the investment program through an MFF, which is well suited for this investment as it is the most effective modality to (i) provide a longer-term lending instrument suited to IWRM process; (ii) afford flexibility in terms of project scope, timing, and size, which may be adjusted to meet emerging priorities of the road map; and (iii) provide sufficient time for institutional strengthening in IWRM for key agencies and water users.
Strategic Context, Link to Government, and ADB Strategies. The medium-term plan of the state of Karnataka emphasizes greater visibility of agriculture and allied activities to increase rural incomes, and achieve a sustainable and orderly process of industrialization and urbanization for poverty reduction and sustained human development. The water policy of 2002 of the state aims for holistic water resources planning, development, and management to be undertaken for each hydrological unit. The National Water Mission, 2011; National Water Policy, 2012; and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, 2012 to 2017 all support the requirement for integrated planning of water resources across various users.
The investment program is consistent with ADB's Midterm Review of Strategy 2020 and country partnership strategy, 2013 to 2017 for India by reinforcing core areas of operations, like infrastructure development for water resources management, investing in irrigation infrastructure to enhance value addition in agriculture, and developing measures to increase water use efficiency. The investment program is also in accordance with the ADB Water Operational Plan, 2011 to 2020. It will improve water governance by embedding IWRM as an adaptive management process, including for climate change adaptation; and improve water use efficiency to increase availability for competing uses.
The state has a number of enabling factors to adopt an IWRM approach, including (i) recognition of the scarcity of, and threats to, water resources; (ii) progressive policy statements; (iii) major investments in water resources infrastructure; (iv) technical capacity; and (v) a progressive outlook, as exemplified by semi-independent institutions of the state WRD like the irrigation corporations or nigams, command area development authorities (CADAs), and the Advanced Centre for Integrated Water Resources Management (AC-IWRM).
Improvements in urban water management will be addressed under a separate ADB-financed investment program. The two investment programs will be closely coordinated through the AC-IWRM.
|Impact||improved sustainable water security in selected river basins in Karnataka.|
|Description of Outcome||integrated water resources management successfully implemented in selected river basins in Karnataka.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Progress towards achieving Outcome indicators is proceeding well and will continue under Tranche 2.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
State and basin institutions strengthened for IWRM
Irrigation system infrastructure and management modernized
Program management systems operational
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
1a. K8 (incl. K9) plan has been prepared under Tranche 1. Under Tranche 2, preparation of River Basin Profile for K2, K3 and K4 sub-basins of Krishna Basin is in progress.
1b. Under Tranche 1: 455 WRD staff trained in IWRM of which 146 are women.
Under Tranche 2: 30 WRD staff trained in IWRM in Jan 2020 of which 16 are women. Two IWRM trainings are proposed during October 2020 to train about 60 WRD engineers.
1c. Karnataka Water Resources Information System (KWRIS) is being developed under both tranches.
2a. Tranche 1 has upgraded 379.20 km of canals. Tranche 2 will upgrade 414.35 km of canals; Tranche 2 VNC is being implemented in two packages:
- Package-1 Civil works (excluding works in Tungabhadra Otter Conservation Reserve and Hampi World Heritage Area) at an estimated cost of INR 3,739 Million are under progress.
- Estimates for Package-2 civil works in Tungabhadra Otter Conservation Reserve and Hampi World Heritage Area are under preparation. Works will be taken up after clearance from NBWL expected in December 2020 (SBWL clearance received in May 2020).
2b. Tranche 1 has developed and operationalized the asset management for Gondi subproject while that for Vijayanagara Channels (VNC) will be developed and prepared under Tranche 2.
2c. 11 WUCS for the Gondi subproject have been established under Tranche 1. At least 30 WUCS for the VNC subproject will be established under Tranche 2. The balance WUCS are for the Left Bank Canal (TLBC) subproject that will be taken up as a standalone project.
Social processes of WUCS formation and strengthening have started and progressing well under Tranche 2. As of 30 Sep 2020, 30 women sub-committees with 542 members have been formed. A total of 87 training events covering 2,219 participants (M:1160; F:1059) have been completed.
2d. For the WUCS established under Tranche 1 for the Gondi subproject, only 21% of management board members are women (25 women over a total of 119 WUCS board members). This is limited by the cooperative bylaws. However, Gondi project promoted a total of 55 women members (non-voting) in WUCS boards (5 per WUCS), thus increasing the women representation to 68.6%. Furthermore, all WUCS have women subcommittees that are operational.
For Tranche 2, as of 30 Sep 2020, 26 trainings were conducted for WUCS members on GESI concept and mainstreaming women, women in irrigation management (T: 537; M:120; F:417).
3. Tranche 1 is under budget but with time extension, physically closed on 31 Dec 2019. Increase of Tranche 2 budget has been approved but commencement is behind schedule.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||ADB initiated a consultation process as an opportunity to get information, as well as to learn about the local context in which a project will take place, to raise issues and concerns, ask questions, and potentially help shape the project by making suggestions for the ADB to consider and respond to. Further, participation and consultation (P&C) process was undertaken to help increase the level of support for the Project and related activities from a range of stakeholders, to speed up processing and reduce challenges during implementation. P&C is also expected to improve the effectiveness, relevance, and sustainability of development activities in the long run.|
|During Project Implementation||The Program Communication Plan covers a range of communication needs of the project. First, it delineates the stakeholder consultation process to be adopted by project management to facilitate awareness and participation for effective project implementation and safeguards. Second, it addresses the need to introduce and explain the project to a wide range of audiences who can influence and affect an enabling environment for the project. Finally, it also informs the general public in the State and outside about the IWRM-based water management actions being initiated by the government to elicit their support, knowledge and participation.|
|Consulting Services||Consulting services will provide technical support for program implementation. The three main consulting services packages will be for the (i) project support consultants (PSCs), (ii) integrated water resources management (IWRM), and (iii) services for monitoring and evaluation (including environmental and effects monitoring). The PSCs will be initially engaged for 4 years under project 1 and another 3 years under project 2. Firms will be recruited using the quality- and cost-based selection method.|
|Procurement||All procurement of works and equipment will be undertaken in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2013, as amended from time to time), while recruitment of consultants and other services will be undertaken in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time). Civil works include modernization of irrigation infrastructures on the Gondi, Vijaynagara and Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal (TLBC) subprojects. Small community works are planned to be undertaken with water user cooperative societies associated with the minor canal and community area development works.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||L'Hostis, Marie|
|Responsible ADB Department||South Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, SARD|
|Concept Clearance||09 Dec 2011|
|Fact Finding||21 May 2013 to 30 May 2013|
|MRM||24 Jul 2013|
|Approval||25 Sep 2014|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||11 Nov 2020|
MFF Facility Concept 0085-IND
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||225.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Karnataka Integrated and Sustainable Water Resources Management Investment Program: Environmental Assessment and Review Framework||Environmental Assessment and Review Framework||Jun 2019|
|MFF - Karnataka Integrated and Sustainable Water Resources Management Investment Program (Facility)||Resettlement Frameworks||Jun 2013|
|Karnataka Integrated and Sustainable Water Resources Management Investment Program||Environmental Assessment and Review Framework||Jun 2013|
|Karnataka Integrated and Sustainable Water Resources Management Investment Program||Initial Environmental Examination||May 2013|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
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The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
Karnataka Gets ADB Loan to Draw Up Comprehensive Water Management PlanADB has approved a $150 million loan facility to help the state of Karnataka draw up a plan to manage strained water resources in key river basins more effectively and fairly.
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