Indonesia: Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project
The Project forms part of the Government of Indonesia's ongoing flagship poverty reduction program the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM Mandiri), which was launched in 2006 with the commitment to reduce poverty by adapting a community-driven development approach and providing direct support to poor rural and urban communities to improve essential social services and basic infrastructure. In line with the overall objective of the PNPM Mandiri Program, the expected outcome of the Project is improved access to service delivery and healthy livelihoods for the poor, near poor, and women in the project communities. The Project will have three outputs: (i) strengthened capacity for community planning and development; (ii) improved rural basic infrastructure through community development grants; and (iii) improved sanitation services through neighborhood development grants.
Southeast Asia Department
Request for information
- Technical Assistance
- Water and other urban infrastructure and services
|Project Name||Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project|
|Country / Economy||Indonesia
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Irrigation - Rural water policy, institutional and capacity development - Rural water supply services
Transport / Road transport (non-urban)
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban sanitation
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The Project forms part of the Government of Indonesia's ongoing flagship poverty reduction program the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM Mandiri), which was launched in 2006 with the commitment to reduce poverty by adapting a community-driven development approach and providing direct support to poor rural and urban communities to improve essential social services and basic infrastructure. In line with the overall objective of the PNPM Mandiri Program, the expected outcome of the Project is improved access to service delivery and healthy livelihoods for the poor, near poor, and women in the project communities. The Project will have three outputs: (i) strengthened capacity for community planning and development; (ii) improved rural basic infrastructure through community development grants; and (iii) improved sanitation services through neighborhood development grants. The Project will be implemented in a geographic slice of the PNPM Mandiri Program and include about 600 rural communities in four provinces; and 1,350 poor urban neighborhoods in 34 cities.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
The Government of Indonesia requested ADB support to scale up ongoing assistance to the PNPM Mandiri scheme to (i) further upgrade basic rural infrastructure in poor villages located in provinces covered by ongoing ADB supported projects, and (ii) promote community-driven sanitation development to contribute to achieving the MDG target, to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation. The Project is included in the Country Operations Business Plan (COBP 2010 2012).
The Government has made poverty alleviation a development priority, thus the new Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJM) for 2010-2014 targets an average growth rate of 6%-7% per year, with a reduction in the poverty rate from 14.2% in 2009 to 8-10% by 2014. The Government's foremost poverty reduction program is PNPM Mandiri, which provides assistance to poor rural and urban communities nationwide through up to three cycles of block grants for improving essential social services and basic infrastructure. The RPJM for 2010-2014 includes PNPM Mandiri as a development tool to accelerate poverty alleviation with an indicative budget allocation of $6,754 million over five years for seven PNPM programs.
Currently, ADB is supporting Government's PNPM Mandiri scheme through two projects: (i) the Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project (RIS-PNPM) for $50.0 million; and (ii) RIS-PNPM Project II for $84.2 million.
While Indonesia has generally made good progress towards accelerting achievement of the MDGs; the MDG targets for access to basic sanitation need special attention. The percentage of Indonesians with access to improved sanitation facilities has doubled since 1993, but progress has been slower than in other countries in the region at similar levels of economic development. In 2009, only 51% of the national population had access to improved sanitation, while the MDG target for accessing basic sanitation facilities is 62.37% of the population by 2015. Particularly the poor often do not have access to safe water sources and basic sanitation facilities; their lack of access has severe consequences for their health and livelihoods. Water borne diseases have a high cost in terms of health among those without access to improved water and sanitation. Two of the most important causes of mortality for children under five years of age are faecal-borne diseases and some 30% of Indonesians suffer from water-borne diseases, including cholera, diarrhea, and typhoid fever which are linked to use of unprotected water supplies, poor sanitation and inadequate awareness among communities of hygienic practices.
To address these issues, the Government has given special attention to encourage communities, the private sector, NGOs and local governments to accelerate sanitation development. The Ministry of Public Works (MPW) and the state-run water companies (PDAM) aim at improving community access to clean water supply by increasing access to house connections, especially in rapidly expanding urban areas and by expanding community-based water supply systems in rural areas. MPW and local governments also increased investments in centralized and community-based sewerage systems with a focus on serving the poor. In addition, the Ministry of Health (MOH) supports efforts to increase public awareness on the importance of clean water and sanitation. MOH will scale up implementation of the Community Led Total Sanitation during 2010-2014, aiming at eliminating open defecation practices by the end of 2014.
|Impact||reduced poverty at the project areas|
|Description of Outcome||improved access to service delivery and healthy livelihoods for the poor, near poor, and women in the project communities|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
The loan was closed on 30 June 2015. As of the project closing on 30 June 2015, the Project benefitted about 1.7 million people, of which about 0.9 million were poor, through the provision of rural infrastructure in 1,088 villages and improved sanitation facilities in 1,416 urban neighborhoods. This exceeds the DMF targets of benefitting 1.1 million people in 600 villages and 1,350 urban neighborhoods.
About $3.6 million loan proceeds are expected not to be disbursed. This is due to the continued depreciation of the Rupiah against the US dollars.
|Description of Project Outputs||
Strengthened capacity for community planning and development
Improved rural basic infrastructure through community development grants
Improved sanitation services through neighborhood development grants
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
800 CIOs in villages and 1,438 CIOs in urban neighborhoods were established.
Two separate meetings for women are carried out in villages and urban neighborhoods during project planning and implementation.
MTPRs for project villages were completed and community sanitation improvement action plan (CSIAPs) were completed in urban neighborhoods prior to construction of civil works. All community members, including women and the poor participated in all project stages. Overal, the targets of 40% of women participation and 50% of the poor were met.
800 vilages and 1,438 urban neighborhoods have completed the provision of rural infrastructure and urban sanitation facilities.
Completed. Three cycles of block grants were distributed to 600 villages, and 1 cycle of block grants were distributed to 200 villages. The additional (third cycle of block grants and additional 200 villages) was from the unused loan proceeds due to depreciation of Rupiah againts the US dollars
observations indicated that the majority of the built infrastructure meet the national standard (more than 80%). This will be further confirmed during the impact evaluation, which will be carried out on 2015.
About 90,000 person-months of immediate employment opportunities were created, of which 24^% were allocated to women.
completed in 1,439 urban neighborhoods.
completed in 2014.
completed in 2014.
The majority of sanitation facilities (more than 90%) are considered meeting the national standards. User groups have been established to operate and maintain the facilities. In general the built facilities are well operated and maintained.
About 125,000 pms of immediate employment opportunities were created of which about 20% were for women.
|Geographical Location||Central Java, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, East Java, North Sulawesi, Provinsi Jambi, Provinsi Lampung, Provinsi Riau, South Sumatra|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project was classified environmental category B. Overall, the project had significant positive impacts on the quality of life and environment of the project communities. Because of the small scale of expected civil works, most of the expected negative effects are site-specific, short-term and temporary, and easily mitigated to acceptable levels. The environmental assessment and review framework was prepared.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project was classified category B as the scope of land acquisition and resettlement was insignificant. In urban neighborhoods, the project required limited land acquisition occasionally for small community sanitation facilities, but did not entail any resettlement of people, relocation of houses, or significant impact upon productive land or other productive assets. Small land acquisitions was provided by project beneficiaries voluntarily. ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement (2009) and its requirements were adopted. Safeguard specialists at national, provincial, and district levels were included in the consultant packages. The resettlement framework was prepared.|
|Indigenous Peoples||The project did not have any negative impacts on indigenous peoples. It did not discriminate against them or other marginalized groups. Following CDD principles, the project includes opportunities for screening project impacts on indigenous groups and incorporating mitigation measures, if any, into the overall design and implementation of any investment. In accordance with ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement, the project has been classified category C|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Project preparation included a number of consultations with community members, usually in the form of stakeholder analyses, workshops, and focus group discussions, held throughout the urban and rural areas to be affected by the Project. Consultations included city government down through the sub-districts and neighborhood/village leaders, as well as consultations with local (non-government) leaders and interested persons from all income levels.|
|During Project Implementation||The Project applied the community driven development (CDD) planning and implementation mechanism. Community members deeply participated in planning, implementation/construction and operation and maintenance of project facilities.|
All consultants were recruited according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants.
The Project required about 4,200 person-months of national consulting services at national, provincial, and district levels. To strengthen training, particularly for community facilitators, a training design and management team was responsible for developing and managing the project training program.
The consultants were recruited in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2010, as amended from time to time). The national training design and management team consisted of three consultants to be contracted as individuals. The management consultants were recruited through national firms. The fixed budget selection method, which requires submitting a simplified technical proposal within 35 days, was used to select the management consultants. The fixed budget selection method was justified to ensure recruitment of highly competent consulting firms with the required mix of specialties, the demand for which has increased considerably because of PNPM Mandiri. The terms of reference of project management consultants followed the format and contents of those developed under PNPM Mandiri.
All procurement of goods and works were undertaken in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines, which allows the use of national competitive bidding procedure. The procedures followed for national competitive bidding (for procurement of goods and works) were those set forth in Presidential Regulations No.54/2010 of the Republic of Indonesia, dated 6 August 2010.
All procurement to be financed under the ADB loan was carried out in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2010, as amended from time to time). Civil works for village/neighborhood investments were contracted out to the communities based on an agreement between a CIO and a DPIU, and in compliance with the requirements for community participation in procurement as specified in ADB's Procurement Guidelines. Community contracts, based on the format of the community contracts under the overall PNPM Mandiri, included evidence of community facilitation, the design of facilities to be constructed under the contract, a community O&M plan for these facilities, and clear duties and responsibilities of both parties for the project activities. The first two community contracts in each participating province were submitted to ADB for prior approval. All contracts were monitored under the management information system
|Responsible ADB Officer||Hasanah, Siti|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Indonesia Resident Mission|
Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works and Housing
Jl. Pattimura No. 20
|Concept Clearance||01 Oct 2010|
|Fact Finding||01 Sep 2010 to 30 Sep 2010|
|MRM||19 Oct 2011|
|Approval||05 Aug 2011|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|PDS Creation Date||04 Nov 2010|
|Last PDS Update||30 Sep 2016|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|05 Aug 2011||30 Sep 2011||15 Nov 2011||30 Jun 2015||-||23 Nov 2016|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||136.10||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||100.00||04 Feb 2022||95.55||0.00||100%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||04 Feb 2022||95.55||0.00||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|05 Aug 2011||22 Sep 2011||22 Sep 2011||31 Dec 2015||-||30 Apr 2016|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|0.00||1,000,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||1,000,000.00||04 Feb 2022||878,957.75|
|Status of Covenants|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project: Environmental Assessment and Review Framework (as of Board approval)||Environmental Assessment and Review Framework||Jul 2011|
|Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project: Resettlement Framework (as of Board approval)||Resettlement Frameworks||Oct 2010|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Indonesia: Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to the PNPM Mandiri Project||Validations of Project Completion Reports||Dec 2017|
None currently available.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
No tenders for this project were found.
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor | Address||Executing Agency||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|Capacity Development||Technical Assistance 7843||29 Jun 2015||Intersys Kelola Maju, Pt. (Indonesia) | Jl. Kalibata Utara II, No. 78 Pasarminggu, Jakarta Selatan, Jakarta 12740, Indonesia||Directorate General of Human Settlements, MOPW||202,003.00||—|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project||Procurement Plans||Jun 2013|