Output 1: Policy and institutional frameworks for sustainable coastal and marine resources management improved
I. Develop national specific guidelines for ecosystem-based resources management for policy makers and managers
1. Indonesia. The Indonesia NCC has agreed on parameters in harmonizing Fisheries Management and Seascape Approaches that will lead to a more comprehensive marine spatial planning framework for Sulawesi Sea. The framework will not only include fisheries and coastal and marine resources management but other human activities as well, such as tourism, transportation, energy, and mining and gas exploration. The RETA will hold several consultation meetings with the newly created Coordinating Ministry on Marine Affairs and other ministries with maritime interests to develop an Integrated Seascape Management Model for Sulawesi Sea.
2. The RETA has completed two packages for the development of spatial database for Sulawesi Seascape, namely: (i) Package 1, Gap Analysis and Procurement of Secondary Data and Satellite Images, and (ii) Package 2, Image Interpretation, Ground Truthing, and GIS mapping for the coastal ecosystem of Kwandang Bay in North Gorontalo District and Para Group of Islands (PGI) in Sangihe District. Kwandang Bay is the pilot site for the application of ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM), while PGI is the site for the establishment of a new marine protected area (MPA). The RETA Team will implement Package 3, Training and Database Establishment by the second quarter of 2016.
3. The University of Hasanuddin (UNHAS) in Makassar, South Sulawesi, which was contracted by the RETA to develop policy recommendations on sustainable live reef food fish trade (LRFFT) in Sulawesi region, has completed the report on existing policies, laws, and regulations, and the review of their implementation, on coral reef fisheries, in general, and on LRFFT, in particular. It has also prepared the report on the state of knowledge on the biology, ecology, and production of coral reef fishes, in general, and of groupers and wrasses, in particular. UNHAS has conducted a focus group discussion (FGD) in Bali, and another one is scheduled in Makassar before the end of the first quarter of 2016.
4. Done directly under ADB's supervision, the RETA assisted the Government of Indonesia in developing an investment program for coastal and marine resources management. ADB has approved Loan Number 3094-INO: Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program, Coral Triangle Initiative (COREMAP-CTI) Project and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) is currently implementing the project.
5. Malaysia. The RETA prepared the Malaysia Essential EAFM Training Manual, both in English and Malay. To operationalize the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, this manual followed the model of EAFM approach (FAO, 2003). The RETA used this manual for the EAFM trainings it conducted in Sabah.
6. Philippines. The RETA has been supporting the Protected Area Management Boards (PAMB) in Tanon Strait, Dumanquillas Bay, and the Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary (TIWS), which are parts of the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) and are, at the same time, pilot sites of the project.
7. Through cost-sharing arrangements with development partners, NGOs and government agencies, the RETA prepared technical papers and supported consultation meetings so that the PAMB of Tanon Strait could agree on several bay-wide policy issues. Tanon Strait is the largest NIPAS site in the Philippines covering about 600,000 hectares and its PAMB involves 350 members from three provinces (Cebu, Negros Oriental, and Negros Occidental) and 42 municipalities and cities. The PAMB held its first ever Summit en banc on 11 February 2015 where it approved the Tanon Strait General Management Plan (GMP). The GMP includes a zoning scheme and an action plan, and it could provide inputs in designing an investment plan for the management of coastal and marine resources in the Strait.
8. The RETA has also supported the conduct of technical studies and consultation meetings that led to the approval of the Dumanquillas Bay Protected Landscape and Seascape (DBPLS) GMP on 28 May 2015. The six municipal mayors of Dumanquillas Bay who sit in the PAMB likewise approved the Unified Municipal Fisheries Ordinance (UMFO) in December 2015. Because of its updated data and strong scientific basis (primarily the 2014 resource appraisal), the GMP has become the basis of several municipalities in revising their own Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs).
II. Design and implement a comprehensive training program on resources management and climate change adaptation for national and local government personnel, nongovernment organization, and the private sector.
9. The RETA has conducted trainings, which contributed to Goals 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA). One thousand seven hundred ninety five (1,795) trainees across Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines (CT3) participated in these trainings, 41% of whom were women. Twenty seven (27) percent of the participants where fishers, 38% come from the government sector, 12% come from the academe, and 22% come from development partners, and the private and other sectors.
III. Mentor government staff in knowledge management
10. In response to the need to develop a monitoring platform that would enable NCCs and development partners to coordinate their activities and resources amongst each other, the RETA supported the creation of the CTI Project Mapping Tool from 2014 to 2015. This knowledge product is now operational and available online (http://www.ctimap.org/). It allows capture and storage of information, search and retrieval, sending of critical information to individuals and group, structuring and navigating, and sharing and collaboration. When used to the fullest, it can assist NCC decision-makers, donors, non-government organizations, and national agencies monitor the achievement of the five goals in the CTI-CFF RPOA, prevent duplication of efforts, identify where future investments should be placed, and help current projects identify how they can complement each other's initiatives.
11. The RETA is also sharing knowledge products (such as news articles, experience notes on CCA, payment for ecosystem services (PES), EAFM, etc.) with the GEF community of practice through postings in the GEF:IW Learn website and announcements in the e-Bulletin (http://iwlearn.net/iw-projects/3589). This site has served as the repository for the Project thus far. The RETA has also created a blog as a platform in sharing the experiences and lessons gained by the project.
IV. Design and conduct public awareness on resources management and climate change adaptation
12. The RETA has successfully implemented the Heroes of the Environment Campaign in the Philippines in 2014 to 2015. The campaign was made up of six major activities namely: (i) Youth Camp on climate change adaptation (CCA)/coastal resource management (CRM), (ii) implementation of youth-led projects, (iii) Our Seas story writing contest for high school students, (iv) Teacher's Camp, (v) monitoring and evaluation, and (vi) development of knowledge products. The Campaign was designed to increase the knowledge and skills of the youth in the coastal communities on CRM and CCA, so they can be agents of change and partners in social transformation. This model will be replicated in Indonesia and Malaysia.
13. The monitoring of the five national high schools in Balabac that joined the Youth Camp on CCA and CRM in April 2015 is ongoing. The projects that were submitted and subsequently approved for implementation were the following: mangrove reforestation, solid waste management, sea turtle protection, and coastal clean-up. The youth club that is engaged in protecting the mouse deer (pilandok) and the sea turtle (pawikan) has formed an organization called the Pilandok and Pawikan Patrol (PPP) and it has conducted seminars to increase their peers' awareness on the importance of these animals. The high school students in Taytay, Palawan who participated in the February 2014 Youth Camp, continue to maintain their reforestation project. Together with their teachers, they are now initiating the school's adopt a watershed program.
V. Promote sustainable financing of resources management and climate adaptation measures
14. Indonesia. Sustainable financing (SF) for CCA is being pilot-tested by reviving the feasibility of the seaweed industry in Arakan, which used to be the center of seaweed production in North Sulawesi. This industry slowly died because of diseases and old seed stocks that have not been replaced. Hence, the RETA introduced fresh cultured stocks from one of Indonesia's Center for Development of Marine Aquaculture and provided technical support as well. The Provincial and District Fisheries Agencies also committed to purchase the seedlings in Arakan for their regular annual seaweeds distribution programs. If revived, the seaweed industry could alleviate the economic vulnerability of the coastal community from adverse effects of climate change.
15. Philippines. The design of PES through ecotourism in Taytay, Palawan is ongoing. Results of benchmarking studies, as well as proposed ecotourism loops or packaged destinations to energize the Taytay tourism industry, have been presented to the local government unit (LGU), private sector and other stakeholders during the PES Benchmarking Workshop organized by the RETA in March 2015. The RETA also organized a Branding and Communication Planning Workshop for Taytay Ecotourism in November 2015 to assist the LGU, resort owners and other possible PES partners agree on the ecotourism vision, image (or branding), objectives, and strategies of Taytay, and also to formulate a communication plan to implement these strategies.
16. Coral and Taklobo (Giant Clam) Gardens (CTGs), as part of the ecotourism sites of Taytay, have been set up in several areas. A private resort owner has expressed interest in expanding the CTG installed by the project in the shallow portion of his resort. The RETA is also working to establish MPAs where there is keen LGU interest in declaring these as pilot MPAs that can be part of future PES deals anchored on marine ecotourism. The public hearings, consultations, and field validations resulted to barangay ordinances declaring three adjacent reefs as MPAs in July 2015. These adjacent reefs, which are still in good condition and which harbour a wide variety of reef fish (including the heavily exploited suno , a highly valued type of grouper), will serve as part of an MPA network (MPAN) in Taytay Bay.
Output 2: Ecosystem-based approach to coastal and marine resources management pilot-tested
I. Design a tri-national monitoring, control, and surveillance system to address illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing in the SSME, and pilot test the system in at least three localities in the CT3
17. The Intergovernmental Forum (IGF) in Thailand signed a resolution on 1 February 2013 to promote sustainable coastal and marine resources management in the region. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines were signatories to this resolution. This resolution includes addressing illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) issues related to LRFFT and extending cooperation to prevent transboundary IUU fishing and illegal trading practices. However, IGF resolutions have yet to be acted upon, and this is one area where the RETA could contribute most. In this regard, the RETA will sponsor a series of consultation of CT3 government representatives to come up with tri-national policy recommendations addressing IUU fishing in the region, including mechanisms on traceability of marine products, Monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS) systems and LRFFT. In the meantime, the RETA has been training government personnel and community volunteers on local MCS activities to combat IUU.
II. Establish one transboundary network of three MPAs, and implement management plans with the SSME subcommittee on MPAs and network of MPA
18. In establishing a network of three MPAs in the CT3, the RETA is focusing on the management of marine green turtles, which complements the work of the Sulu Sulawesi marine Ecoregion (SSME) Sub-committee on MPANs. In Indonesia, the project has assessed the migratory, feeding and nesting behavior of green turtles in Sebatik Island, North Kalimantan, a corridor towards major turtle nesting grounds in Berau, East Kalimantan. The scoping study of the project points to an average of 90 turtle deaths in a year due to by-catch. Hence, the project will develop and pilot-test turtle-friendly fishing technologies that would not adversely affect the livelihood of fishers. In Malaysia, the project will support Sabah Parks in the preparation of a management plan for the Turtle Islands Park (TIP). It will assist in conducting vulnerability assessment (VA) to determine the cause of soil erosion in turtle nesting beaches in TIP and in addressing the infestation of rats that eat significant quantity of turtle eggs. The transboundary NMPA in the Philippines involves the Balabac Corridor in Southern Palawan and the Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary (TIWS). The project has held a series of consultations with leaders of the Molbog Council, the major indigenous people (IP) group in Balabac. This municipality, chosen for its rich biodiversity and crucial role as part of a transboundary marine turtle network, has no MPAs or fisheries ordinances. The project has presented the results of habitat assessment that it has conducted to local leaders. The work in TIWS will include the finalization of TIWS GMP drafted more than ten years ago. To engage the local communities in coastal resource management, the RETA is supporting youth and women's organizations in their livelihood activities. It is also helping in establishing a pilot Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) and a comprehensive solid waste management program. The RETA, together with its partner NGOs, is still updating the TIWS GMP.
III. Develop ecosystem-based management plans in 5 project sites
19. The RETA has completed the population genetics of Plectropomus leopardus (suno) in the Priority Conservation Areas in the SSME, a collaborative effort of the CT3 that could have significant impact on regional policies on IUUF and LRFFT. A knowledge product will be prepared for a wider stakeholder understanding of the need for resource management of suno , a highly targeted grouper species because of its high commercial value.
20. In Indonesia, the RETA has conducted biophysical (coral, seagrasses, and mangrove) and socioeconomic surveys and processing of satellite images as preparatory activities in establishing a new MPA in Para Group of Islands (PGI) in Sangihe District, North Sulawesi. The biophysical and socioeconomic profiling will lead up to the delineation of proposed MPA. Upon approval by the province, a detailed zoning and a MPA plan will be prepared. Another ecosystem-based management plan being developed in Indonesia is the EAFM for the sustainable management of coral reef fisheries in Kwandang Bay, North Gorontalo District. The project has completed the field surveys for the Characterization and Scoping of Pilot Sites for the biophysical and socioeconomic profiling of the target areas.
21. For Malaysia, ecosystem-based management involves EAFM in Semporna, where the Project has exceeded its target of training representatives from fishers, dive operators, NGOs, local university, and traders as part of capacity building on EAFM for stakeholders. Participants of these trainings will prepare the EAFM plan for suno in Semporna with inputs from their training modules and results from the CT3 genetic study. The RETA is also developing a Pilot Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan in Marudu Bay. Located in the proposed Tun Mustapha Park (TMP), preparatory activities for ridge-to-reef management in Marudu Bay have been progressing within the context of the draft ICZM Policy of the State of Sabah. The project has completed the draft marine profile of the bay for the dry season and profiling for the rainy season is to commence soon. The RETA will conduct ICZM consultations and planning once results from marine profiling for dry and rainy seasons are available.
22. The ecosystem-based management in the Philippines includes support to the application of EAFM in Dumanquillas Bay. This involves the on-going yearlong stock assessment of sardines and anchovies, which will be the basis in formulating management strategies that may include seasonal closures to commercial sardine fishing. The RETA has conducted an E-EAFM Training Course to help local stakeholders in drafting the Dumanquillas Bay GMP, especially with respect to area-specific issues and corresponding interventions. The RETA has also sponsored workshops and trainings involving various sectors and stakeholders to review the draft GMP of Ta?on Strait (Philippines) and formulate area-specific action plans. The RETA has collected biophysical and socioeconomic data and it assisted the PAMB in getting the support and endorsement of LGUs. The PAMB finally approved the Tanon Strait GMP during a landmark Summit in February 2015. This huge seascape needs entirely new investment program for the implementation of its GMP. Another ecosystem-based plan being developed by the RETA is the Local MPA Network in Taytay, Palawan. Encouraged by the progress in RETA activities, the local councils that cover the PES sites for CTGs have issued resolutions declaring selected reefs as MPAs that will form part of a network of MPAs for reef fishes in Taytay. The Project has conducted a resource assessment in the proposed MPA sites and it has held stakeholders' meetings to present the MPAN concept and solicit community support.
IV. Conduct climate change vulnerability assessments, and pilot test adaptation measures in three coastal villages
23. Arakan, South Minahasa District, North Sulawesi (Indonesia). The project has completed the Mapping and Analysis of Climate and Climate Projection Exposures in Amurang Bay, South Minahasa and it has conducted local early action planning (LEAP) with the people in Arakan, a coastal village that has been affected by climate change. In partnership with a local NGO, the project has been implementing the CCA plan that includes: (i) ecosystem rehabilitation and monitoring, (ii) improvement of solid waste management, (iii) strengthening of economic resiliency through the revival of the seaweed industry, and (iii) public awareness on climate change. The project also forged partnership with the provincial Red Cross to introduce an integrated community-based risk reduction system, and improve the health and sanitation practices in the village.
24. Taytay, Palawan (Philippines). Building on the CCA Plan developed by WWF and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Coral Triangle Support Program (CTSP) in 2013, the RETA implemented the following pilot demonstration CCA activities in Taytay, Palawan:
(i) introduction of salt-tolerant rice varieties from IRRI to bring back the productivity of idled paddies due to saltwater intrusion during high tide and storm surges;
(ii) mariculture of abalone with juveniles from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC AQD);
(iii) provision of materials for seaweed culture as alternative livelihood for mangrove cutters who were organized by the RETA and Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD);
(iv) planting of ipil-ipil trees in a 3-hectare land donated by the Barangay Captain to make available alternative sources of fuel wood;
(v) conduct of various non-capture fisheries training to improve the climate resilience of fisher households;
(vi) basic disaster preparedness training conducted; and
(vii) water search and rescue training.
25. Balabac, Palawan (Philippines). The RETA has conducted VA in the most hazard-prone barangays of Balabac. Its results, together with the hazard maps and various climate change scenarios and their possible effects have been presented to the LGU. The project also conducted a workshop for integration of the results of the VA report to the CCA plan and comprehensive land use plan (CLUP) of the municipality. The VA results showed the level of susceptibility of barangays to different natural hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, tsunami, sea level rise, and landslides. Various CCA and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM)-related activities have been implemented.
V. Develop SF plans for MPAs for the Berau Marine Conservation Area and Kudat and Balabac priority conservation areas
26. Indonesia. The Indonesia NCC excluded Berau Marine Conservation Area from the RETA sites during the INO inception meeting on 22 September 2012, and it designated the PGI instead for new MPA during its meeting on 26 March 2014. The RETA has the field surveys fo the biophysical and socioeconomic profiling of the proposed MPA. SF will be included in the PGI MPA management planning process where nature-based ecotourism could be considered as form of PES similar to that of CTGs in Taytay, Palawan. An area around the proposed MPA is emitting bubbles and warm water, which could be further investigated for its ecotourism value.
27. Philippines. To establish sustainable financing for the management of MPAs, the RETA initiated a pilot PES design in Taytay, Palawan as most likely SF strategy for some RETA sites. A PES Benchmarking Workshop was conducted in Taytay, Palawan to present the results of the assessment of potential ecotourism sites conducted in late 2014. The CTG was agreed upon as the PES scheme to be piloted in the municipality. To implement this approach, the RETA has set up a coral nursery and a taklobo garden. Interest from private resort owners to participate in this scheme has been mixed but there are at least two owners who continue to show support and interest. Following the community consultations and initial field validations, concerned barangay councils have passed resolutions in July 2015 declaring several reefs as MPAs.
28. The RETA has proven the approach of providing sustainable livelihood to coastal communities as a way of sustaining MPA management through community participation. Hence, the RETA, just like in Taytay, has introduced livelihood support activities in Balabac in partnership with DSWD. The JFPR Grant 9160: Developing Sustainable Alternative Livelihoods in Coastal Fishing Communities in the Coral Triangle will continue and expand the pilot livelihood demonstrations implemented by the project. The presidents of beneficiary POs have signed agreements with the RETA they will manage their livelihood projects efficiently and will remain as partners in marine and coastal resources management.
VI. Pilot test sustainable livelihood activities in targeted coastal villages in Sabah
29. The RETA has initiated the development of sea cucumber culture in Mapan-mapan, a village in Pitas District. This microenterprise will supplement government investments in sea cucumber culture in the area. The project has conducted an inception meeting with stakeholders and it has held trainings for beneficiaries. The subjects of these trainings include: (i) the ecology and biology of sea cucumber, (ii) optimum stocking and maintenance of pens, (iii) book-keeping, marketing, trading, (iv) feeding/sediment enrichment, and (v) processing and quality assurance. Beneficiaries also received materials and equipment to start-up their enterprises.
Output 3: Effective project management
I. Prepare and submit GEF biodiversity tracking tools on MPA management effectiveness at project midterm
30. The project has assessed the effectiveness of management of protected and conervation sites using the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT). This scoring method addresses objectives 1 and 2 of the Biodiversity Focal Area of GEF. Due to changes in project locations, only three sites have a comparison of baseline and mid-term (MTR) assessments, namely, Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) in Malaysia and Dumanquillas Bay (DBPLS) and Ta?on Strait in the Philippines. Nevertheless, the project has collected new baseline data for other sites, e.g., Semporna, Kwandang Bay, PGI, Taytay Bay, and TIWS, which could be used for comparison at the end of project implementation period or beyond. Changes in tracking tool assessments are as follows:
" Threat level at TMP remained constant at 40%;
" Management effectiveness at TMP increased from 44% to 50%;
" Threat level at DBPLS declined from 45% to 31%;
" Management effectiveness at DBPLS improved from 32% to 50%;
" Threat level at Tanon Strait declined from 51% to 37%;
" Management effectiveness at Tanon Strait, improved from 43% to 58%; and
" The financial scorecard for Tanon Strait improved from 36% to 46%.