Bangladesh: Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program

Sovereign Project | 44167-013

The Asian Development Bank is working with Bangladesh to improve the lives of people in some of the country’s most flood-prone areas. The program is helping to make the country’s main rivers more stable and less damaging to people’s lives and businesses. The program focuses on areas around the Jamuna, Padma, Ganges and Meghna rivers. It is financing the construction of riverbank revetments, which are sloping structures that lessen the impact of incoming water. Flood embankments or levees are also being built.

Project Name Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program
Project Number 44167-013
Country / Economy Bangladesh
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Source of Funding / Amount
MFF Facility Concept 0082-BAN: Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program
Government of the Netherlands US$ 15.30 million
MFF Facility Concept 0082-BAN: Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program
Asian Development Fund US$ 255.00 million
MFF Facility Concept: Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program
Government of the Netherlands US$ 17.89 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Sector / Subsector
Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description ADB is assisting the Government of Bangladesh to improve the livelihoods of people in the country's most flood and erosion prone areas along the Jamuna, Ganges and Padma rivers. The Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program is in line with the plans of the government to strategically manage flood and riverbank erosion risks along the country's main rivers to reduce damages to people's assets and to lessen constraint to economic development. It will finance the construction of riverbank revetments to protect vulnerable riverbanks and therefore assets and flood embankments behind the riverbanks from progressive erosion. Flood embankments will also be rehabilitated or constructed. The investment program will include training for communities to develop their capacity to operate and maintain the structures and to manage flood and erosion risks at the community level. The community capacity development will be combined with livelihood improvement supports. The investment program will include the construction of about 48 kilometers (km) of riverbank protection structures; rehabilitation and construction of 29 km of flood embankments with climate-resilient design (updated investment program targets including reduced scope for Tranche 2 to be completed during the 10 years availability period of the MFF); and piloting of innovative riverbank protection structures. The investment program will also support the national-level institutional capacity strengthening for more strategic planning and implementation of flood and erosion risk management. This will improve the lives of the people in the affected areas.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy People in Bangladesh are often affected by water-related natural disasters, including floods, riverbank erosion, drought, cyclones, and tidal surges. About a fifth of the country is inundated annually. This is due largely to the location of the country on a vast flat floodplain at the confluence of three main riversthe Jamuna (and Padma), the Ganges, and the Meghna. Riverbank erosion is one of the most prominent disasters in Bangladesh, caused by highly dynamic river morphology. It causes the loss of about 5,000 to 6,000 hectares of floodplain every year, affecting about 100,000 people. The high possibility of riverbank erosion hinders construction and rehabilitation of flood embankments. The threat of frequent flood and erosion disasters discourages investment and leads to low economic growth of riverine areas. The poor who tend to live in vulnerable riverine lands face significant social hardship. They lose their homesteads, lands, and crops, and are forced to move to other vulnerable riverine lands or urban slums. Improved infrastructure and flood and erosion risk management is essential for economic growth, livelihood improvement and poverty reduction in the areas affected by flooding and erosion.

improved livelihoods in the project area.

Project Outcome
Description of Outcome

reduced flood and riverbank erosion risks in the subproject areas.

Progress Toward Outcome Project activities are ongoing. In 2018, as per request of GOB, ADB approved the extension of Tranche 1 up to 30 June 2020.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Flood and riverbank erosion risk mitigation functioning at priority reaches

Strengthened institutional systems for flood and riverbank erosion risk management, and

Operational program management systems

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Tranche 1 project activities are ongoing, but due to fund shortage some activities will be deferred to Tranche 2. In 2018, as per request of GOB, ADB approved the extension of Tranche 1 up to 30 June 2020.

Activities are ongoing with Institutional Strengthening and Project Management Consultants (ISPMC).

Activities are ongoing with ISPMC.

3rd meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee_recommended for further study on the river stabilization plan in September 2017. Study is ongoing with ISPMC.

Activities are ongoing with ISPMC.

For Tranche 1, 17.8 km riverbank protection substantially completed.

For Tranche 1, mobilization is ongoing for 21.3 km of climate-resilient flood embankment construction.

Pavement works of 5 km of road have been temporarily excluded from the embankment packages due to potential cost overrun. The item may be covered during Tranche 2.

For Tranche 1, 7 regulators and other hydraulic structures were originally planned, but were re-organized into a large structure during detailed design. Four structures will be constructed during this Tranche. If required, new water control structures/regulators may be considered under Tranche 2.

For Tranche 1, implementation NGO for community-based disaster management activities has been mobilized.

Recruitment of livelihood NGO has been transferred to Tranche 2 due to fund shortage.

Geographical Location
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects The first tranche is categorized A for environment. The project interventions will result in positive impacts such as reduced flood damage to crops, security of land from erosion, and improved agricultural and investment conditions. However, changes in floodplain hydrology resulting from construction of flood embankments may bring some negative impacts. The key potential negative impacts are impacts on floodplain-dependent open water fish species and floodplain aquatic habitats, and potential loss of natural wetland production areas. Measures to mitigate these impacts have been built into the project design and addressed in the government's environmental impact assessment, which contains the environmental management plan. Additional environmental studies will be conducted during the first tranche to formulate measures to offset residual impacts. In addition to these studies, a strategic environmental assessment, which assesses the impacts of the investment program, was also developed during this tranche. The environmental impact assessment was disclosed on ADB's website, meeting the 120 days disclosure requirement. An environmental assessment and review framework has also been developed for the MFF. Stakeholders have been consulted and a grievance redress mechanism has been established. Subsequent tranches are also likely to be categorized A for environment.
Involuntary Resettlement

The first tranche is categorized A for involuntary resettlement. About 94 hectares of land will be acquired for the Jamuna right bank 1 subproject area. The land is required for (i) restoration of an embankment along the Jamuna River (12.5 km), (ii) rehabilitation of embankments along tributaries (10.5 km), and (iii) riverbank protection works along the Jamuna River (1.0 km). The land acquisition will affect 1,184 households comprising 8,953 persons, of whom 4,393 persons will lose 10% or more of their productive assets. The remaining 4,560 persons will be physically displaced. The affected persons are also direct beneficiaries of the flood and riverbank erosion protection. Impacts of the land acquisition include loss of land, structures, and trees. A resettlement framework and a resettlement plan have been finalized and were agreed with the executing agency, following government laws and regulations and ADB Safeguard Policy Statement. They were disclosed on the ADB website with endorsement by the executing agency. The resettlement plan includes a relocation plan as well as economic rehabilitation of the affected persons. Extensive consultations with the affected persons were conducted during the TA, and relevant information from the resettlement plan was explained to them. BWDB has developed institutional capacity for mitigating social risks through executing a number of externally-funded projects.

Two other resettlement plans for the remaining two subproject areas have been prepared under the first tranche, for resettlement and land acquisition of 14 km of riverbank protection works along the Jamuna and Padma rivers after approval of the first tranche by ADB Board of Directors, and just before the construction of structures, in accordance with the resettlement framework. This flexibility facilitated dealing with significant riverbank alignment changes resulting from progressive erosions. Stakeholders in the two subproject areas have been consulted during the TA. Subsequent tranches are likely to be categorized A for involuntary resettlement.

Indigenous Peoples The first tranche is categorized C for indigenous peoples. There are no indigenous peoples as defined for operational purposes by ADB Safeguard Policy Statement in any of the identified subproject areas of the first tranche and subsequent tranches under the investment program. As the subsequent tranches will also be categorized C, an indigenous peoples planning framework for the investment program was not prepared.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design

Various groups of stakeholders were consulted at different stages of the project design. This included consultation for identifying needs, discussing possible solutions, and describing the proposed project design.

Findings of the PPTA and project design were explained and discussed at the inception, interim and draft final workshops during the PPTA, with the participation of government officials of the EA and other government agencies, development partners, academic institutions, NGOs and local stakeholders.

Particularly for local people in the subproject areas, including potential project affected people, due consultations were held with focus on women, landless and other vulnerable groups regarding (i) flood and erosion protection needs, (ii) relocation and livelihood issues, (iii) possible solutions to resolve the constraints identified, and (iv) institutional mechanism to address these constraints. Subproject level workshops were also held to explain and discuss the proposed the proposed project design.

During Project Implementation Similar intensive stakeholder consultation will be held during project implementation and for the preparation of future tranches. Regular workshops will be conducted to exchange information and findings of the project with different government agencies, development partners, resource institutions, NGOs, local communities and other parties concerned. Local communities will participate in project implementation through: (i) formulation of community-based disaster management committees, (ii) community capacity development activities for community-based flood and erosion disaster risk management and participatory regular operation and maintenance (O&M), and (iii) livelihood support activities. Civil societies will be engaged for the implementation of these activities that involve community mobilization and participation. Significant number of local residents will also participate in civil works for erosion protection and flood embankments as labor.
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services All consultants, NGOs, and other institutions will be recruited according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants.
Procurement All procurement of goods and works will be undertaken in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines.
Responsible ADB Officer Drieu, Olivier
Responsible ADB Department South Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, SARD
Concept Clearance 21 Feb 2012
Fact Finding 17 Jul 2013 to 01 Aug 2013
MRM 08 Apr 2014
Approval 26 Jun 2014
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 27 Mar 2019

MFF Facility Concept 0082-BAN

Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 373.70 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 255.00 - 0.00 0.00 %
Counterpart 103.40 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 15.30 - 0.00 0.00 %

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