The Asian Development Bank is working with Cambodia to improve the country’s irrigation systems and malaria control programs. The two projects are increasing farm productivity and farmers income while improving health services to prevent the spread of malaria. Irrigation systems are being improved in Kampong Thom and Battambang provinces.
|Project Name||Uplands Irrigation and Water Resources Management Sector Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Irrigation - Water-based natural resources management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
The proposed Uplands Irrigation and Water Resources Management Sector Project will help the Government of Cambodia increase agricultural production by rehabilitating, modernizing, and climate-proofing selected irrigation systems in Kampong Thom and Battambang provinces. Subprojects will be undertaken to (i) enhance the efficiency and climate resilience of irrigation systems, and (ii) improve water resource management by building the capacity of government agencies and of farmer water user communities (FWUCs) so that they can operate and manage the irrigation systems better. The project will contribute to achieving targets defined in the government's strategy. The strategy aims to develop and expand the country's irrigated land and manage its water resources more effectively by improving existing irrigation systems, making water user communities more efficient, and reducing the vulnerability of the Cambodia's people to disasters caused by natural hazards. The project is included in the Asian Development Bank (ADB) country operations business plan for Cambodia for 2015 2017.
The project impact will be inclusive economic growth through agriculture and irrigation, in line with phase 3 of the government's Rectangular Strategy on Growth, Employment, Equity, and Efficiency for 2014 2018. The outcome will be water and agriculture productivity enhanced in the project area. The project will deliver two outputs: (i) Output 1: Enhanced efficiency and climate resilience of irrigation systems in the project area; and (ii) Output 2: Improved water resource management.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Improved macroeconomic stability and public financial management reforms have helped Cambodia's economy grow during 2004 2014. Gross domestic product grew by 7.0% in 2014 and is expected to expand by 7.4% during 2015 2016. Agriculture accounts for 29% of gross domestic product and employs 72.3% of the country's work force, or about 5 million people. The livelihoods of 80.0% of Cambodians depend on the sector. Farming in Cambodia is mostly subsistence-level, rain-fed, and devoted to paddy rice production. Even though Cambodia has become self-sufficient in rice and a rice exporter, its rice-based farming generates low incomes for its people. Nearly one-quarter of its provinces have food deficits, and 16.1% of the population is undernourished, even though the annual paddy surplus now stands at 3.3 million tons.
Rainfall distribution and river discharges vary significantly from season to season in Cambodia, which makes sustained year-round agricultural production difficult and increases vulnerability of the farmers' livelihood and rural economy. The timely availability and efficient management of water is of prime importance to enhancing agriculture productivity and achieving diversification in agriculture production and the rural economy. The deterioration of existing irrigation infrastructure is seriously compromising the government's plans to achieve these goals. In addition, droughts due to climate change may further restrict the availability of water and hurt agricultural productivity, particularly during periods of peak requirements. For this reason, irrigation scheduling, water gauging, and the designing of joint reservoir operations have been included in the project scope. The facilities the project will support may also be affected in the future by the high-intensity rainfall and excessive flooding that may result from climate change, and the project will therefore provide appropriate drainage facilities.
Improving agricultural productivity, crop diversification, irrigation and water resource management, and water storage capacity are among the major thrusts of the government's national strategy. The strategy prioritizes the development of irrigated agriculture to ensure food security and to build up the rural economy. Of the 3.98 million hectares (ha) of agricultural land in Cambodia, about 1.3 million ha are within the command area of 2,730 irrigation systems. Most of these systems are either dysfunctional or underperforming due to the deterioration and aging of infrastructure, a lack of resources to rehabilitate them, and inadequate operation and maintenance (O&M). The two core irrigation systems selected for improvement by the project have a total command area of 20,301 ha, but only 11,935 ha of this land is currently being cultivated 1,015 ha in the dry season and 10,920 ha in the wet season. This is due to water not reaching the farms because design life of main and distribution canals is already exhausted and they need rehabilitation. By ensuring that this land is better irrigated, the project will increase the cultivated area of these two subprojects to 28,083 ha 10,912 ha in the dry season and 17,171 ha in the wet season.
Irrigation consumes about 70% of Cambodia's water. Efficient, effective, and sustainable management of the country's water resources largely depends upon how smartly irrigation systems are managed to match the use of water with the seasonal crop requirements and minimize the losses in conveying this water to and applying it in the fields. Increasing public investments in irrigation infrastructure and introducing modernized operational management will make the country's irrigation systems more efficient and productive. The proposed project's interventions will enhance agricultural and rural economic productivity through increased efficiency of irrigation systems and improved management of water resources in upland areas of Kampong Thom and Battambang provinces.
|Impact||Inclusive economic growth through agriculture and irrigation (Rectangular Strategy on Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency, Phase III, 2014 to 2018)|
|Description of Outcome||Water and agriculture productivity enhanced in the project area|
|Progress Toward Outcome||As of December 2016, the project implementation is on track. Out of 8 civil works contracts, two (package CW 01 and CW 06) were awarded in January and February 2016, bid evaluation of two packages (CW 03 and CW 04) is at final stage, bids for one (CW 07) have been invited on 14 December 2016, and detailed engineering design and bidding documents for remaining three packages are at final stage. All works contracts will be awarded by 31 March 2017 and works will be completed by 31 December 2018. The contract for Project Management and Implementation Consultants (PMIC) amounting $4.25 million was awarded on 29 January 2016 and consultants mobilized on 15 February 2016. All goods contracts for vehicles, office equipment and furniture, and hydro-meteorological stations have also been procured.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Efficiency and climate resilience of irrigation systems in the project area enhanced
2. Water resource management improved
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
Works on two awarded contracts for Traing Krasang and Prek Chik main canals are progressing well and are ahead of schedule. Both contracts are expected to complete before the scheduled completion dates.
Three FWUCs would be formed and trained (30% of the members will be women) and eight hydro-meteorological stations will be installed in the watersheds. Meetings are being held to discuss the organization of FWUCs. The contract for hydro-meteorological equipment, amounting to $1.41 million, was signed on 31 May 2016.
An Operations and Management (O&M) study will be carried out to estimate the financial requirements for all irrigation systems in Cambodia, and actual budgets allocated. The data was updated for about 2,000 irrigation systems (out of total about 2,800) through condition surveys carried out under ADB's Water Resources Management Sector Development Program Loan by 30 June 2017. The O&M study will be completed by December 2017.
|Geographical Location||Battambang, Kampong Thom|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project is classified as category B for environment. The IEE prepared in 2015 during the PPTA covers two subprojects, Taing Krasaing Scheme in Kampong Thom and Prek Chik Scheme in Battambang. The IEEs for Package CW03, 04 and 07, are being prepared and drafts will be submitted for ADB review.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project is classified as category C for involuntary resettlement. A resettlement framework was developed to guide the screening of all sub-projects. The PMU submitted resettlement categorization reports with involuntary resettlement impact categorization to ADB for works packages CW 03, CW 04, and CW 07 in July and October 2016. Those were reviewed and responded by the Social Development Specialist.|
|Indigenous Peoples||The project is category C for indigenous people. No indigenous people live in the project area, and none are expected to be impacted by the project.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||
Farmer water user communities (FWUCs) will be involved in the design process. The FWUCs will be consulted during PPTA implementation through focus group meetings, community consultation meetings and day to day field work.
A mapping of other CSOs will be done and NGOs involved in the water and irrigation sector will be consulted.
|During Project Implementation||Subproject agreements will be signed with FWUCs for participating in implementation of the subprojects and taking over operation and maintenance responsibility of tertiary canals.|
|Consulting Services||The project will require 58 person-months of international consultant services and 610 person-months of national consultant services to provide technical support to help the PMU manage and implement the project efficiently. The consultant firms will be recruited in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time).|
|Procurement||Procurement is expected to involve small and large works contracts and goods and will be done using ADB's national and international competitive bidding and shopping methods. An imprest account will be maintained at the PMU level for ADB loan funds.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Long, Piseth Vou|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Cambodia Resident Mission|
Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology
364 Monivong Blvd, Khan Chamkamorn Phnom Penh, Cambodia
|Concept Clearance||14 Aug 2014|
|Fact Finding||16 Jun 2015 to 26 Jun 2015|
|MRM||04 Aug 2015|
|Approval||24 Sep 2015|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||23 Mar 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|24 Sep 2015||10 Nov 2015||06 Jan 2016||30 Sep 2021||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||66.12||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||60.00||24 Sep 2015||43.54||0.00||71%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||24 Sep 2015||29.09||0.00||47%|
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ADB, Cambodia Sign Loans to Improve Irrigation and Disease Control SystemsCambodia and ADB today signed loan and grant agreements totaling $64 million for two projects which will further improve the country’s irrigation schemes and malaria control and monitoring systems.
ADB Loan to Help Transform Irrigation Systems in Kampong Thom, BattambangADB has approved a $60 million loan to increase agricultural production by rehabilitating, modernizing and climate-proofing irrigation systems in Kampong Thom and Battambang provinces.
|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|CAM: Uplands Irrigation and Water Resources Management Sector Project||Advance Notice||Archived||17 Aug 2015|
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor||Contractor Address||Executing Agency||Contract Description||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|MOWRAM/ICB-CW08 UPGRADING, MODERNIZING AND EXTENDING THE SECONDARY AND TERTIARY CANANLS OF PREK CHIK IN BATTAMBANG (PACKAGE 2)||Loan 3289||08 Aug 2017||VARIOUS||VARIOUS NEPAL||Ministry of Finance||CONSTRUCTION||4365728||4365728|
|Upgrading, Modernizing, Extending the Secondary and Tertiary Canals of Prek Chik (PC) Irrigation System in Battambang Province - Package 1||Loan 3289||23 May 2017||Anhui Shui'An Construction (Cambodia) Co., Ltd||#11, St. Lom, Sangkat Teuk Thla, Khan Sen Sok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia||Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology||Construction||5542927||5542927|
|Upgrading, Modernizing, and Extending the Korkoah Secondary and Tertiary Canals of TK Irrigation System in Kampong Thom Province||Loan 3289||05 Jan 2017||Seak Chheav Leng Enterprise Co., Ltd.||621, Street 357, Sangkat Chbar Ampov II, Khan Chbar Ampov, Phnom Penh Cambodia||Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology||Construction||1938956.89||1938956.89|
|T04 - Bamungoria to Haripur||Loan 3289||05 Jan 2017||Seak Chheav Leng Enterprise Co., Ltd.||621, Street 357, Sangkat Chbar Ampov II, Khan Chbar Ampov, Phnom Penh Cambodia||Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology||Construction||5879592.8||5879592.8|
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Uplands Irrigation and Water Resources Management Sector Project: Procurement Plan||Procurement Plans||Aug 2015|