The TA will assist Jiangxi government in strengthening water resource management of the Boyang Lake as agreed with the government in the aide memoire of the country programming mission for PRC in December 2010. The objectives of the TA
are to improve Jiangxi provincial government's water resource management strategies, and to develop capacity of managing climate change risks to ensure sustainable management of Boyang Lake. The TA objectives are consistent with those in the country program for 2011 2012 that ADB will support, among others, the government's strategic reposition to protect the ecosystem of Boyang Lake. The TA is in line with ADB's core operational area of environment, and is part of ADB's continuous effort to support the government in protecting its water resources to sustain economic growth, and improving livelihoods in impoverished central provinces.
ADB has been supporting the PRC government's efforts in water resources management by providing lending and technical assistance support over the last two decades. Sample projects and TAs include forest ecosystem rehabilitation in Jiangxi province, reducing flood damages and economic losses in Hunan and Yellow River basin, water quality improvement in Hai River estuary and Jiaozhou Bay; policy studies of wastewater and solid waste management in small cities and towns, urban wastewater reuse, urban storm water management and waterlogging disaster prevention; wetland protection in Sanjiang Plain, Gansu Tianshui, Jiangsu Yancheng, and Shaanxi Weinan Luyang Lake. To strengthen the government's capacity in water resources management, ADB has been supporting integrated water resource management strategies in Baiyangdian, Qingdao, Guiyang, and Chao Lake. The experience and knowledge gained from these projects will be reviewed and incorporated in the TA study.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
||Water availability and water quality have become constraints to economic growth in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The government's no. 1 document of 2011 focuses on water conservancy reform and development, which reiterates the importance of the implementation of the government's Comprehensive National Water Resource Plan issued in December 2010. Boyang Lake is the largest fresh water lake in the PRC. With a watershed area of 162,200 km2 in Jiangxi province, Boyang Lake discharges 145 billion m3 of fresh water to the Yangtze River each year, representing about 15.6% of total runoff. The water quantity and quality of the Boyang Lake affect not only the economic development and livelihoods of Jiangxi province, but also the water safety of the vast downstream region of the Yangtze River. Boyang Lake is also an important habitat for migratory birds, and globally important wetland. A healthy ecosystem of Boyang Lake is critical to global environment and biodiversity. On 12 December 2009, the State Council approved the Ecological Economic Zone Planning for Boyang Lake , which makes it a national strategy, and a priority subject of the 12th Five Year Plan of Jiangxi province, to protect the water resources and ecosystem of the Boyang Lake.
Wastewater discharges from cities and industries to major tributaries and shore lands of the Boyang Lake have caused eutrophication and deterioration of water quality. Also, unusual changes in water levels and water quality of the Boyang Lake have been observed and made water resources management more unpredictable and complicated. The unusual changes of water levels are believed to have resulted from extreme weathers in recent years. Water levels have dropped down to record low during dry seasons, and the areas of the wetlands are shrinking, which have changed vegetation cover, accelerated the growth of blue algae, threatened biodiversity, and deteriorated habitats of migratory birds. Incomplete data of water quality, pollution sources, and their impacts on ecosystem of the Boyang Lake and the lack of proper monitoring stations, skills, and resources have made monitoring and regulation difficult. Management is deficient due to the weak capacity in strategic planning and implementation, the lack of state-of-the-art knowledge of water resources management, and poor coordination among departments of environmental protection, construction, agriculture, and forestry.
Jiangxi is an impoverished province. More than two thirds of the provincial area is hilly and mountainous. The provincial gross domestic product per capita was CNY17,300 in 2009, one-third less than the national average. About 5% of the population still lives below the national rural poverty line of CNY1,196 per year. The protection of the water resources of Boyang Lake will support the economic growth, improve ecosystem, and minimize the harshness of poor people's livelihoods in Jiangxi province, and also safeguard water security of downstream cities of Yangtze River. ADB has been helping Jiangxi government in forest ecosystem rehabilitation and urban infrastructure improvement. The establishment of a water resource management framework and improvement of the provincial government's capacity in water resource management for the Boyang Lake will ensure the sustainability of ADB projects, support the development of the Ecological Economic Zone Planning for Boyang Lake, rehabilitation project for Boyang Lake, and promote economic growth and improve people's livelihoods, especially the poor rural households, in Jiangxi province. The lessons learned and knowledge developed from the TA may be replicated in the management of other lakes in the country, e.g., Chao Lake, Tai Lake, and Dongting Lake.
The TA will focus on following challenges: (i) increasing wastewater discharge into the lake and rivers, (ii) limited water quality monitoring stations resulting in an incomplete water quality monitoring network and database, (iii) climate change risks of water resources management, and (iv) weak institutional framework for water resources management. The TA will assist the Jiangxi provincial government to (i) prepare a strategic framework to improve water resources and ecosystem protection of the Boyang Lake, and mainstream climate change risk management measures in the strategic framework; and (ii) improve institutional capacity in water resources management and climate change risks management.