||This project is proposed under the Government of Bangladesh's Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR), prepared under the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR). The PPCR is a part of the Strategic Climate Fund (SCF) within the Climate Investment Funds (CIF), to pilot and demonstrate ways to mainstream climate resilience in development planning and management. The SPCR was approved by the PPCR Sub-committee on 10 November 2010. Led by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the World Bank and International Finance Corporation, proposed investments in the Bangladesh SPCR will focus on improving coastal embankments, rural connectivity, water supply and sanitation, promoting public-private financing, and capacity building for mainstreaming climate resilience, and knowledge management. As one of the projects approved for enhanced climate resilience under the SPCR, the Climate Resilient Infrastructure Improvement in Coastal Zone Project will improve livelihoods in the rural coastal districts vulnerable to climate variability and change.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate variability and change because of its geographic location, low deltaic floodplain, and hydro-meteorological influence of erratic monsoon rainfall and other extreme climate events. Increased risks of severe flooding, more frequent extreme weather events, salinity intrusion, erratic rainfall pattern, increased temperature and a potential sea level rise pose new risks to the rural infrastructure, particularly to the coastal districts. Rural infrastructure is directly vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change as well as indirectly, through changes to the surrounding environment. Changes in temperature are likely to impact road pavements. Extreme weather events such as stronger and/or more frequent cyclones and storm surges will affect the capacity of drainage and overflow systems to deal with stronger or faster velocity water flows. Increased salinity levels will reduce the structural strength of pavements and lead to precipitated rusting of the reinforcement in concrete structures, thereby reducing their effective life. Changes in rainfall pattern and water levels will impact road foundations with obvious consequences on their sustainability and robustness. To ensure its longevity and sustainability, any rural infrastructure investment, especially in coastal districts must be resilient to climate change associated extreme events. Inadequate attention to these impacts will increase the long-term costs of infrastructure investments, and the likelihood that such investments fail to deliver the intended benefits.
Climate change threatens the significant achievements made by Bangladesh in the last 2 decades in raising incomes and reducing poverty. In the country, women are relatively more vulnerable to extreme climate events because of poorer access to education and health services and economic opportunities; limited mobility; and various social restraints. By 2050, climate change impact is projected to result in an increase in the temperature by over 1.0 C and sea level rise of about 30 cm. This could make an additional 14% of the country extremely vulnerable to floods and dislocate more than 35 million people in the coastal districts. The country has an outstanding adaptation deficit and there exist substantial risks from severe flooding even in the current climate. According to a recent estimate, 87% of roads in the country will be substantially inundated due to climate change by 2050. The cost of adaptation for the railways, road network, embankments and drainage infrastructure to offset additional inundation due to climate change alone is estimated at $ 2.7 billion. This estimate is conservative as it does not include the additional adaptation required in urban areas and unprotected river banks.
The project, while enhancing longevity and sustainability, will improve livelihoods in nine rural costal districts prone to climate variability and change. The project will consider various climate proofing options both for engineering (subsurface conditions, material specifications, cross section and standard dimensions, drainage and erosion, and protective engineering structures), and non-engineering (maintenance, planning and early warning, knowledge products development and dissemination, capacity development and environmental management). ADB's Country Strategy and Program for Bangladesh (2006-10) and forthcoming Country Partnership Strategy (2011-15) both emphasizes the need for integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and dealing with climate-induced natural disasters.