The Asian Development Bank is working with Mongolia to help herders diversify their incomes and prepare for shocks related to climate change and extreme weather. The project includes working with herders to improve the management of their pastures. It is building or repairing 30 water points for livestock and testing the use of a solar-powered deep engineering well. Herders are being helped to branch out into products such as milk, felt, crop production, baked goods and handicrafts.
|Project Name||Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Grant
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture and Natural Resources - Land-based natural resources management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||No gender elements|
ADB has been assisting in agriculture, natural resources management, and rural development of Mongolia since 1996. This proposed assistance will help herders, the most vulnerable group affected by the climate change to (i) strengthen their preparedness for recurrent dzud, and (ii) rehabilitate and/or improve their livelihoods. Lessons learned from the ongoing JFPR 9124-MON, which are relevant to the proposed assistance, will be incorporated in the design, implementation arrangements, and implementation schedule of the proposed project.
The proposed project will target livelihood improvement of herders, who are largely poor and vulnerable, by ensuring sustainable pasture management, which accounts for about 72.3% of the national land area. It will support the objectives of the National Mongolian Livestock Program 2010_2015, which aims at developing a livestock sector that is resilient to climate change, conductive to social development, and economically viable.
The proposed assistance will promote a holistic approach to sustainable herding and livelihood diversification in candidate project soums, namely, Buutsagaan, Khureemarel, and Dzag in Bayanhongor Aimag. For both activities, smooth formation of HGOs is crucial. Sustainable herding will comprise collective pasture management, water point management, hay preparation, and management of herd sizes through effective marketing. The proposed assistance will also provide HGOs with opportunities for value-added activities, and other income-generating activities to help them diversify their income sources. Income diversification is considered as a means of climate change adaptation by lessening their reliance on the weather-sensitive herding. Adjacent soums are preferred for smooth coordination among soums for pasture management, and thorough monitoring by the project management unit (PMU).
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||The proposed JFPR assistance will target livelihood improvement of herders, who are largely poor and vulnerable, by ensuring sustainable pasture management, which accounts for about 72.3% of the national land area. The proposed country partnership strategy for Mongolia 2011_2015 (CPS) continuously positions poverty reduction as a thrust of ADB's assistance to Mongolia. In particular, the CPS acknowledges that herder households, female-headed households, and urban migrants are the major contributors to the high poverty incidence, which has resulted in the widening inequality between urban and rural populations. The CPS also specifies environmental sustainability as one of the five thematic drivers of the development challenge, and stipulates the ADB's assistance in climate change adaptation and sustainable management of natural resources including pasture. This project is designed to fully support the objectives of the National Mongolian Livestock Program 2010_2015, which aims at developing a livestock sector that is resilient to climate change, conductive to social development, and economically viable. The proposed assistance will promote a holistic approach to sustainable herding and livelihood diversification in candidate project soums, namely, Buutsagaan, Khureemarel, and Dzag in Bayanhongor Aimag. For both activities, smooth formation of HGOs is crucial. Sustainable herding will comprise collective pasture management, water point management, hay preparation, and management of herd sizes through effective marketing. The proposed assistance will also provide HGOs with opportunities for value-added activities, and other income-generating activities to help them diversify their income sources. Income diversification is considered as a means of climate change adaptation by lessening their reliance on the weather-sensitive herding. Adjacent soums are preferred for smooth coordination among soums for pasture management, and thorough monitoring by the project management unit.|
|Impact||Sustainable rural livelihoods in Buutsagaan, Dzag, and Khureemaral soums (project soums) in Bayanhongor aimag.|
|Description of Outcome||Climate-resilience of livestock husbandry sector improved in project soums.|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
The project achieved all outcome target indicators.
Outcome indicator 1: About 70% of pasture in each project soum under herder group pasture management by year 4
- Over 70% of pasture (887,443 ha out of 1,272,800 ha) is under herder group management as end of 2015.
- Of such, 662,264 ha was winter and spring pasture and 225,179 ha was summer pasture.
Outcome indicator 2: About 70% of herder households in each project soum prepare winter fodder or hay.
- Over 80% of herder groups (65 out of 74) comprising 906 herder households prepared 656 tons hay, 630 tons salt-marsh and 132 tons fodder and silage in 2015.
- Natural hay, reserve pasture and fodder crop areas were fenced covering 186 ha (93 fence fields).
- A herder cooperative's proposal to build 50 ton capacity hay and fodder storage house was supported.
- Hay production of 42 herder groups was supported with 15 hay cutters, 30 knapsack and 3 wheeled mowers; fodder production of 8 herder groups was supported with manual seeders; 40 herder groups and 3 herder households with perennial crop seeds and nitrogen fertilizer.
|Description of Project Outputs||
Capacity for sustainable herding improved in project soums.
Water points established and managed in project soums.
Income generation diversified in project soums.
Effective project management established.
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
The project achieved target indicators for all outputs.
Output 1 indicator 1: By year 2, a model winter livestock shelter is established in each project soum.
Achievement: Winter and spring livestock shelters of 67 herder groups, total 112, were established / rehabilitated in the soums with assistance of the project. Additional 225 livestock shelters were constructed and rehabilitated with herders own resources.
Output 1 indicator 2: By year 2, model fodder production is demonstrated in each project soum
Achievement: see Achievement for Outcome indicator 2.
Output 1 indicator 3: By year 3, about 70% of herder households in each project soum join herder groups.
Achievement: Seventy four herder groups of 1020 member households were established comprising 75.7% of total herder households of project soums.
Twelve herder cooperatives of 599 individual members were established comprising 20.3% of all herders of the soums.
Output 1 indicator 4: By year 3, about 70% of herder groups in each project soum establish pasture use agreements with their respective soum governors.
Achievement: Sixty seven herder groups of the soums, which comprise about 80% of the total households in the project soums, established pasture use agreements with respective Soum Governors.
Output 1 indicator 5: Pasture management plan prepared for each project soum.
- Herder groups prepared pasture use plans with the project support annually (for 2013 till 2015) and for three years (for 2016 till 2018).
- Pasture use plans of the herder groups were accepted by Bagh General Assemblies and endorsed by Soum Governors.
- Pasture use plans and draft maps of 13 baghs of 3 soums were prepared based on 67 herder group pasture use plans for 2016.
- Data of 2100 points of livestock shelters and water points were put into GIS database. Pasture monitoring survey was conducted in 110 points of pasture of the soums, EOTAP final users' workshop was conducted for 40 persons.
Output 2 indicator 1: By year 3, at least 30 water points constructed and/or rehabilitated in the project soums.
- Total 51 deep wells were established / rehabilitated and accepted by the Aimag Well Hand-Over Committee between 2013 and 2015. For all deep wells water use agreements were signed with respective Soum Governors. In addition, 44 shallow wells were established and 17 spring heads were protected in the soums. 7 shallow wells operated with renewable energy were established. One deep well in the permafrost areas was established and equipped with solar energy equipment.
Output 2 indicator 2: By year 3, all herder groups provided with new or rehabilitated water points enter into water use agreements with their respective soum governors.
Achievement: see Achievement of Output 2 indicator 2.
Output 3 indicator: By year 4, 50% of herder households in each project soum belong to herder groups directly and indirectly involved in supplementary income-generating activities.
- Seventy two percent of herder groups (53 out of 74) participated directly and eighty six percent (64 out of 74) participated indirectly in project-supported income-generating activities.
- Business proposals of 11 herder cooperatives and 35 herder groups were funded with MNT665,727,620 for dairy, bakery, vegetable and fodder growing, breeding livestock, tailoring, hairdresser's, shoe and tyre repair and livestock-originated raw material preparation.
- Business initiatives of herder groups and herder cooperatives were advised and developed into business proposals which was assessed for potential environmental impacts and screened by soum working groups and aimag committee.
Output 4 indicator: Policy briefs on sustainable livestock and pasture management are prepared and disseminated.
Achievement: Policy briefs on sustainable livestock and pasture management prepared. Project pasture expert contributed to draft a pasture law.
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
|Environmental Aspects||Environmental assessment report was prepared. The Environmental Specialist, as part of the mid-term review, did a field site visit and reviewed project documents for compliance with environmental safeguards. The project accomplished the compliance with environmental aspects including safeguards.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||No land acquisition or resettlement was necessary.|
|Indigenous Peoples||According to preminary finding in Bayanhongor, project aimag, no groups are present that qualify as IP under ADB's SPS. The project soums in Bayanhongor is composed almost exclusively of Khalkh.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Consultations with those stakeholders were ensured throughout project processing and implementation. The project was designed to cover all herders of project soums primarily for the effective soum-wide pasture management.|
|During Project Implementation||The project was completed on 13 June 2016 as scheduled. Grant closing date was 5 September 2016.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Ueda, Takeshi|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, EARD|
Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Light Industry (MOFALI)
Strategic Planning and Policy Department
MOFALI, Peace Avenue, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Ministry of Industry and Agriculture
|Concept Clearance||20 Jul 2011|
|Fact Finding||03 Jun 2011 to 07 Jun 2011|
|Approval||08 Jun 2012|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||27 Oct 2016|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|08 Jun 2012||13 Jun 2012||13 Jun 2012||13 Dec 2016||-||30 Aug 2016|
|Financing Plan||Grant Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||2.86||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||0.00||08 Jun 2012||0.00||2.49||100%|
|Cofinancing||2.50||08 Jun 2012||0.00||2.49||100%|
|Status of Covenants|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (January 2015-June 2016)||Audited Project Financial Statements||Jun 2016|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods Project: Audited Project Financial Statements (January-December 2014)||Audited Project Financial Statements||Jun 2015|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods: Audited Project Financial Statements (1 January-31 December 2013)||Audited Project Financial Statements||Sep 2014|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods||Procurement Plans||Apr 2014|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods: Audited Project Financial Statements (13 June-31 December 2012)||Audited Project Financial Statements||Jun 2013|
|Уур амьсгалын өөрчлөлтөнд зохицсон хөдөөгийн амьжиргаа||Translated PDS||Jan 2013|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods||Grant Assistance Reports||May 2012|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods||Initial Environmental Examination||Dec 2011|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
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