Improving domestic connectivity is one of key strategic pillars in the Government's Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN). Improving domestic connectivity is one of the strategic foci of the Government's Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Economic Development 2011-2025 (MP3EI) issued in May 2011. To achieve higher and more inclusive growth across the region in Indonesia, the MP3EI has three strategic foci: (i) accelerating economic development in six economic corridors, (ii) improving national connectivity, and (iii) strengthening human resources, science, and technology, which are prerequisites to sustained, accelerated and green growth. The new ADB Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) currently being finalized has two key pillars, inclusive growth and environment sustainability. Strategically, the RPJMN provides CPS direction while the MP3EI will be the convergence of ADB's sectoral/thematic interventions and the Government's vision of accelerated development.
|Project Name||Improving Domestic Connectivity|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Transport - Air transport - Road transport (non-urban) - Water transport (non-urban)
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Some gender elements|
|Description||Improving domestic connectivity is one of key strategic pillars in the Government's Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN). Improving domestic connectivity is one of the strategic foci of the Government's Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Economic Development 2011-2025 (MP3EI) issued in May 2011. To achieve higher and more inclusive growth across the region in Indonesia, the MP3EI has three strategic foci: (i) accelerating economic development in six economic corridors, (ii) improving national connectivity, and (iii) strengthening human resources, science, and technology, which are prerequisites to sustained, accelerated and green growth. The new ADB Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) currently being finalized has two key pillars, inclusive growth and environment sustainability. Strategically, the RPJMN provides CPS direction while the MP3EI will be the convergence of ADB's sectoral/thematic interventions and the Government's vision of accelerated development. The policy and advisory technical assistance (TA) for Supporting Domestic Connectivity will support the government initiative on the second strategic focus on improving domestic connectivity, with emphasis on inter-island connectivity. It was requested by the government during the CPS consultation prior to the release of the MP3EI. The TA were first included in the Asian Development Bank (ADB) TA pipeline in May 2011. The priority areas covered under the TA was formulated based on discussion with the Ministry of Transport (MOT), the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), and other government counterparts during ADB Fact Finding and consultation missions. Agreement was reached with the government on the impact, outcome, outputs, implementing arrangement, cost and financing arrangement, and terms of reference of the TA.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Good economic management post Asian crises restored economic growth to an average of 5.1% during 2000-2009. Economic growth in 2010 strengthened further to 6.1% supported by more buoyant investment and exports. However, significant development challenges remain. Recent economic growth is still significantly below the pre-crisis level and the government's medium-term target of 7-8% as stated in the RPJMN. While poverty and unemployment have trended downward, they remain relatively high. Poverty rates in some provinces in the eastern part of Indonesia is relatively higher. In addition, the government also intends to reduce inflation over the medium term. Currently, inflation is still higher and more volatile than in other competitor countries and increasingly becomes an issue that could potentially slow down poverty reduction. The major sources of recent inflationary pressure are from the supply side with visible regional dimension, suggesting that its solution in the medium term has to include improved domestic connectivity.
The government recognizes that lagging infrastructure, underdeveloped inter-island connectivity, and an inefficient logistics system are among key constraints in achieving its target of higher growth, faster poverty reduction, and lower inflation. A number of studies have pointed out that infrastructure and logistic systems have emerged as a major constraint for accelerating economic growth. The quality of Indonesia's infrastructure and logistical systems is lower than that of its regional neighbors, resulting in lower levels of domestic and international connectivity. The recent success of the country in maintaining a healthy macroeconomic environment throughout the crisis has boosted Indonesia's ranking in terms of economic competitiveness by 10 places in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) to 44 in 2010. However, at 82, Indonesia's ranking on infrastructure is far below its overall GCI ranking, implying that infrastructure is a drag on the country's competitiveness. The Global Enabling Trade Report (2009) ranked Indonesia 75th in terms of efficiency of customs administration and 94th in terms of transparency of border administration out of 121 countries. As a result, the time taken for containers to be cleared at Indonesian ports is very high, with about 25% of import containers requiring more than 10 days to be cleared. The restrictive regulations results in a low level of competition in the provision of logistics services. Logistics costs in Indonesia is estimated at about 14% of total production costs, compared to only about 5% in Japan (Basri and Hill, 2010).
The impact of lagging infrastructure, poor inter-island connectivity, and inefficient logistic system have appeared in a number of forms. Sending a 40 feet container from Jakarta/Surabaya to Bitung (North Sulawesi) costs $600 compared to approximately $300 from Jakarta to Singapore because small domestic container ships cannot capture economies of scale compared to larger vessels. The productivity in container moved/hour of the typical crane in Indonesia ports is 40-45 while Singapore can achieve 100-110 per hour. According to one estimate, the turn-around time for domestic shipping at the 25 strategic ports is on average 2.7 days. With average sailing time being 1.5 days ships were spending about 75% of the total time between destinations at port. Due to delays in cargo handling, the main shipping lines report that they often have to leave Jakarta Port before completing the loading to keep to schedule. Reflecting poor logistics and inadequate transport infrastructure, about 70% of the rice price differences across provinces are explained by the degree of remoteness (World Bank, 2010). High inter-island freight rates mean availability and prices of basic commodities fluctuate widely in remote areas resulting in higher average inflation in some regions in Indonesia. A bag of cement which costs IDR 50,000 in Jakarta or Surabaya (Java) will cost IDR 75,000 in Jayapura and IDR 500,000 in Wamena (both in Papua). In addition, Indonesia's manufacturing sector is not well integrated into international production networks because of unreliable transport and high logistics costs.
To help address the challenges, the connectivity pillar of the MP3EI focuses on (i) improving intra economic corridor connectivity by developing roads, shipping, railways, and improving local access to the centers of growth and facilities; (ii) improving inter economic corridor connectivity by developing good interconnection between primary ports and airports (especially in the eastern Indonesia) and reducing logistical and economic costs of inter-corridor delivery of goods and services, and (iii) improving international trade logistics by preparing ports and airports as international hubs in western and eastern Indonesia, optimizing the operation of the National Single Window, and enhancing the operation of international ports and airports through implementation of an integrated logistic system. After the issuance of the MP3EI, the Government will revisit, harmonize, synergize and update its existing planning documents, such the National Logistic System (SISLOGNAS) and National Transport System SISTRANAS. The update will be reflected in the road map and annual implementation of connectivity programs. This exercise can be strengthened significantly with available updated information, particularly on the second element on inter economic corridor connectivity.
Connecting less developed eastern Indonesia to domestic and international markets will improve access to goods and services at lower, more stable prices as well as increase production and the volume of domestic and international trade by lowering transaction costs. In addition, improved connectivity will (i) support greater integration between regions to reduce price volatility resulting from the impact of sudden shocks in production or demand; (ii) increase market access as well as the competitiveness of Indonesian goods, including those from eastern part of the country and (iii) contribute to greater diversification in production and exports while encouraging the domestic rather than foreign commodity processing, thereby improving employment and reducing poverty.
Linkage to Country Partnership Strategy/Regional Cooperation Strategy:
The new ADB Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) currently being finalized has two key pillars, inclusive growth and environment sustainability including climate change. Strategically, the RPJMN provides CPS direction while the MP3EI will be the convergence of ADB's sectoral/thematic interventions and the Government's vision of accelerated development. The proposed TA will support the government initiative on the second strategic focus on improving domestic connectivity, with emphasis on inter-island connectivity. The TA will also indirectly support regional cooperation and regional trade by supporting government's priority to enhance inter-island connectivity and an enhanced domestic logistics system.
|Impact||Improved contribution of MOT, Bappenas, and related government institutions to the national efforts of accelerating economic growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia through enhanced implementation of domestic connectivity reforms|
|Description of Outcome||Strengthened analytical capacity of MOT, Bappenas, and related government institutions to deliver policy analysis on domestic connectivity to support their annual planning and strategy|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Trainings and capacity building activities have been conducted at MOT, Bappenas, and Kemenko. Traning and capacity buiding activities will continue until June 2015.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Analysis of selected potential policy reform and investment programs to address key impediments to domestic connectivity
Capacity building program for selected staff of relevant government institution
Report reviewing existing planning documents, relevant regulations, available domestic and international studies related to domestic connectivity
Targeted survey covering logistics chain for key commodities listed in the MP3EI origin destination and other regulatory and physical constraints
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||An economic model for connectivity policies impact analysis has been developed, focusing on connectivity in eastern Indonesia. Capacity building activities are integrated into this exercise. In May 2013, a minor change in scope and implementation arrangement was approved for the fourth core area of the TA to focus on the logistics chain survey within the pioneer shipping operation in eastern Indonesia|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Both MOT and Bappenas are actively engaged and contributed to the project design.|
|During Project Implementation||The TA will be implemented from January 2011 to June 2015. The MOT will be the executing agency for the TA. Both MOT and Bappenas will be the implementing agencies of the TA. MOT will be responsible for establishing and chairing the TA steering committee. The steering committee will convene as needed, and be regularly consulted on implementation of TA activities. The Indonesian government would provide inputs in kind, including staff, facilities, and other contributions for hosting workshops and other meetings, as appropriate.|
|Consulting Services||The TA will require expert input equivalent to a total of 17 person-months of individual consulting services, 4 including one international consultant for 5-person months and two national consultants for a total of 12 person-months.|
|Procurement||Given the nature of the expertise required, it is deemed more appropriate to engage individual consultants|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Ginting, Edimon|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Indonesia Resident Mission|
Ministry of Transport
Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat
No.8, Jakarta 10110, Indonesia
|Concept Clearance||24 May 2011|
|Fact Finding||04 Jul 2011 to 18 Jul 2011|
|Approval||12 Dec 2011|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||31 Mar 2015|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|12 Dec 2011||09 May 2012||09 May 2012||15 Dec 2013||15 Jun 2015||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|0.00||500,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||500,000.00||12 Dec 2011||457,521.94|
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Improving Domestic Connectivity: Technical Assistance Completion Report||TA Completion Reports||May 2017|
|Improving Domestic Connectivity||Technical Assistance Reports||Dec 2011|
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