The Asian Development Bank is working with Tajikistan to help communities in the Pyanj River Basin prepare for the effects of climate change. The project is protecting at least 1,700 hectares of land from floods; providing 1,450 hectares of land with irrigation water; providing at least 4,150 households with a safe water supply; and making microfinance services available to at least 1,000 households.
|Project Name||Building Climate Resilience in the Pyanj River Basin|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Grant
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture and Natural Resources - Irrigation
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
The project aims to increase resilience to climate vulnerability and change of communities in the Pyanj River Basin. The project's impact will be improved livelihoods of Pyanj River Basin communities vulnerable to climate variability and change. The project's outcome will be reduced adverse effects of climate variability and climate change in 59 villages in 19 jamoats in the Pyanj River Basin. The project has four outputs:
Output 1 is flood protection infrastructure climate-proofed in 10 jamoats. It will (i) upgrade and climate-proof flood and mudflow protection infrastructure in 10 locations, including riverbank reinforcement, embankment reconstruction, restoration of stream beds, terracing and planting of trees, and soil stabilization; (ii) establish O&M practices, develop O&M guidelines, and train local units of the responsible agencies; (iii) develop early warning communication systems through the use of modern technologies; (iv) establish disaster risk management committees; and (v) conduct training and disseminate information on the impact of climate change and adaptation measures for local government officials and local institutions such as khashar (mutual self-help groups), mahala (neighborhood associations), and women's committees.
Output 2 is irrigation systems climate-proofed in eight jamoats. It will (i) rehabilitate and climate-proof irrigation canals and network assets, including reconstruction and desilting of drainage and delivery channels and rehabilitation of pumping stations; (ii) pilot a drip irrigation scheme; (iii) strengthen water users' associations; and (iv) provide advice and disseminate information on water resources management and climate-resilient agricultural practices to farmers, local government officials, women's groups, and other stakeholders.
Output 3 is water supply infrastructure climate-proofed in seven jamoats. It will (i) rehabilitate and climate-proof seven rural drinking water supply systems, including rehabilitation, upgrade, and construction of boreholes, provision of new and rehabilitated pumping equipment, and construction of new service reservoirs and water tanks; (ii) establish O&M practices for drinking water supply systems, develop O&M guidelines, and train local units of the responsible agencies; (iii) establish drinking water consumer groups to influence responsible agencies and ensure performance of the water supply facilities; and (iv) raise awareness of health and other risks associated with climate change.
Output 4 is micro credits and micro deposits made available to promote climate resilience in the Pyanj River Basin. It will (i) expand capacity of participating financial institutions (PFIs) in the Pyanj River Basin to accept micro and small deposits and provide micro loans in support of climate-resilient economic activities; (ii) provide credit lines for agricultural improvements (climate-resilient agriculture credit line) and economic diversification (income diversification credit line), particularly targeting women; (iii) strengthen financial literacy of the local population; and (iv) assess the feasibility of collateral insurance linked to credit and, if appropriate, pilot a credit insurance scheme.
The project will:
- Protect at least 231 hectares of arable land from annual floods and 1,490 hectares of arable land from high floods by 2019. Training on disaster risk management will be provided to communities. Disaster risk management groups will be established and early warning systems developed to support communities in their responses to floods;
- Service 1,450 hectares of arable land with irrigation water. Water users associations (WUAs) will be established and trained to deliver agricultural advice. Women will represent at least 20% of the WUAs members. Training on climate-resilient agriculture practices will be provided to farmers, local government officials, women's groups, and other stakeholders. A drip irrigation scheme will be piloted;
- Service at least 4,150 households with water supply. Drinking water consumer groups will be established to influence responsible agencies and ensure performance of the water supply facilities. Women will represent at least 30% of members of water consumer groups. Information on health and other risks associated with climate change will be disseminated to local communities;
- Make available micro credits and micro deposits to at least 1,000 households to promote climate resilience agriculture and economic diversification in the Pyanj River Basin. A third of all subloans will be for either women or enterprises with a minimum of 50% ownership by women. Training on financial literacy will be provided to local population. The feasibility of collateral insurance linked to credit will be assessed and, if appropriate, a credit insurance scheme will be piloted in the river basin.
The project will have three executing agencies: (i) the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources (MLRWR), (ii) the State Unitary Enterprise for Housing and Communal Services (Khochagii Manziliyu Kommunali - KMK), and (iii) the MOF. MLRWR will be responsible for outputs 1 and 2, KMK will be responsible for output 3, and MOF will be responsible for output 4. Overall coordination will be provided by the Executive Office of the President and the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience Interministerial Committee, which is chaired by the deputy prime minister. A project steering group comprising the three executing agencies will provide implementation guidance and monitor project performance. The project management structure will consist of (i) a project management office (PMO) in the MLRWR and four project implementation offices (PIOs) in the Pyanj river basin; (ii) the existing project implementation group in the KMK and three PIOs; and (iii) the PMO in the MOF, which is jointly financed under three ADB projects. The project management units will ensure compliance with grant covenants, project administration manual, gender action plan, and financial and safeguard requirements. Specific responsibilities will include (i) overall financial management; (ii) procurement, disbursement, and accounting; and (iii) monitoring and evaluation, including progress reports for submission to ADB.
Tajikistan-regulated microfinance institutions (MFIs) may apply to be a PFI if they meet the following eligibility criteria: (i) compliance with mandatory prudential standards regulation in Tajikistan; (ii) corporate, financial, management, and governance practices acceptable to ADB and MOF, and satisfactory completion of ADB's integrity, anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism due diligence requirements; (iii) successful experience in the rural development sector; and (iv) willingness and ability to grow and service beneficiaries in the Pyanj River Basin in line with the objectives of the project, including the ability to offer deposits. Microfinance institutions will be required to (i) submit audited financial statements for the 2 years prior to entering into a subsidiary loan agreement, (ii) implement a basic environment and social management system, and (iii) implement adequate anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism customer due diligence measures. PFIs will enter into a subsidiary loan agreement with the MOF and a project agreement with ADB. ADB conducted financial and integrity due diligence on four microfinance institutions from July 2012 to March 2013. Based on the results of the due diligence assessment, IMON International and OXUS have been selected to participate in the first round of microfinance activities. Half of the total funds ($1.4 million) will be allocated to IMON International and OXUS in equal amounts. The remaining total funds will be allocated by MOF, subject to ADB concurrence, to selected and eligible MFIs.
The project was approved by the ADB board on 25 July 2013. A grant agreement was signed by t
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Tajikistan is considered to be one of the Central Asian countries most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. It frequently experiences extreme climate events such as intense spring rainfall, excessive melt-waters from large snow accumulations, droughts, and occasionally devastating glacial lake outburst floods. These cause mudflows, floods, reduced water availability, avalanches, landslides, and rockfalls. These hazards routinely take lives and destroy or degrade land, crops, and infrastructure.
With a population of approximately 1.27 million, the Pyanj River Basin (114,500 square kilometers) is the largest of the five principal basins of Tajikistan (Pyanj, Vakhsh, Kafernigan, Zerevshan, and Syr Darya). It has a large range of altitude, from 300-350 meters (m) in the semi-arid lowlands of southern Khatlon to more than 7,000 m in the Pamir and Hindu-Kush mountains. It is also the bread-basket of Tajikistan, containing a large portion of the country's agricultural land. Communities located in the Pyanj River Basin are already experiencing extreme climatic events. In the mountainous Gorno Badakhsan oblast (province), droughts, avalanches, landslides, rockfalls, and violent winds are routine events which disrupt social and economic life, damage houses and infrastructure, and erode land. Occasional but devastating flash floods are released when temporary glacial lakes, created by glacier surges in the Pamir Mountains, burst without warning (glacier lake outburst flood). In the hills, lowlands, and flood plains of the eastern Khatlon region, droughts caused by decreased snowfall, and mudflows and floods caused by intense spring rain, occur annually. These hazards routinely destroy land, crops, and infrastructure and, in the worst cases, take lives.
Recent studies indicated that projected rise in temperature of up to 2 degree Celsius by 2050 will result in glacial melt and early snow melt. The runoff peak is likely to shift from the current late spring and early summer towards late winter and early spring runoff regime. This shift has significant repercussions for farming practices and water resources management because it leads to a major water deficit during the crop growing season. Increasing risks from hazards such as catastrophic flooding due to glacial lake outbursts, destabilizations of mountain slopes, and more landslides will result in a progressive increase in economic losses and risk to the population, and reduce the ability of communities located in the Pyanj River Basin to move out of poverty. These adverse effects will be exacerbated by an increase in water demand resulting from increased evapotranspiration and a projected 25% population increase by 2050. Water infrastructure in the Pyanj River Basin is in a state of disrepair. Irrigation systems and flood protection need major repair, and safe drinking water is often inaccessible. Planning and maintenance capacity at the jamoat (subdistrict) and community level is very weak. Financial resources for subsector-specific development planning and operation and maintenance (O&M) are absent. National and local institutions are weak and lack climate change risk management skills. In addition, the Pyanj River Basin faces particular development challenges arising from the high rate of out-migration by males and the consequent prevalence of households headed by women. Main barriers to climate resilience include the lack of information on climate change impacts on water resources, limited availability of financial resources to introduce resilient practices, absence of risk transfer mechanisms, and limited women's involvement in decision making.
As a result of its high exposure and its limited capacity to anticipate and manage climate change risks, Tajikistan is a beneficiary of the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience a multilateral program financed by the Strategic Climate Fund (SCF) that aims to demonstrate approaches to increase climate resilience in developing countries. Building climate change resilience of communities in the Pyanj River Basin was identified as a priority by country stakeholders in the extensive consultations that the Government of Tajikistan has conducted in partnership with ADB, the World Bank, and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development since 2009, as part of the first phase of the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience. Priorities identified include the need for a better coordinated and strategic approach to water resources management in the Pyanj River Basin, encompassing (i) improved access to water resources through climate-resilient infrastructure for irrigation, drainage, water supply, and storage; (ii) increased resilience to extreme climate events through flood protection, early warning systems, and risk transfer mechanisms; and (iii) improved access to information and financial resources, particularly for women.
The proposed project is consistent with the Tajikistan country partnership strategy, 2010-2014 and is included in the Tajikistan country operations business plan, 2013-2014. This project is also in line with ADB's long-term strategic framework, Strategy 2020, which includes support to increase climate resilience of developing member countries. The project design reflects lessons from previous ADB interventions in the country.
|Impact||Improved livelihoods of Pyanj River Basin communities vulnerable to climate variability and change.|
|Description of Outcome||Adverse effects of climate variability and climate change reduced in 59 villages in 19 Jamoats in the Pyanj River Basin|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Five civil works contracts under ALRI awarded and ongoing. Two contracts for KMK awarded and ongoing.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Flood protection infrastructure is climate proofed in 10 jamoats
Irrigation systems are climate-proofed in 8 Jamoats
Water supply infrastructure is climate-proofed in 7 Jamoats
Micro-credit and microdeposit established to promote climate resilience
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||All three PMOs and project implementation offices (PIOs) under each PMO are already functional and fully equipped. The project implementation consultants for ALRI and KMK were deployed in July 2015. The international national microfinance consultant under MOF PMO started working during the first week of March while the national microfinance consultant started in September 2015. The MOF and the project implementation consultant signed the contract on 14 March 2016.|
|Geographical Location||Pyanj River Basin|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project is classified category B for environment. The infrastructure subprojects are expected to have limited site-specific adverse environmental impacts during both construction and operation, and are located outside environmentally sensitive areas. Two initial environmental examinations have been prepared, one by the MLRWR for the flood protection and irrigation subprojects and one by the KMK for the water supply subprojects, in accordance with ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement (2009). Adequate mitigation measures for each subproject will be implemented through site-specific environmental management plans based on generic environmental management plans for water supply, flood management, and irrigation components. Site-specific environmental management plans will be prepared by contractors, and approved by the PMO in the MLRWR and the project implementation group in the KMK. Consultants will assist the MLRWR and KMK in strengthening institutional capacity to manage environmental impacts.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project is expected to have only nonsignificant land acquisition and resettlement impacts and is classified involuntary resettlement category B, according to the ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement. The engineering design of the infrastructure subprojects under the project has not yet advanced to a stage where land acquisition and resettlement impacts on individual or collective land users can be identified. A land acquisition and resettlement framework has been prepared in lieu of land acquisition resettlement plans. During project implementation, each subproject will be screened for land acquisition and resettlement impacts. For subprojects with such impacts, land acquisition and resettlement plans will be prepared and implemented in accordance with the land acquisition and resettlement framework before the commencement of civil works. For subprojects involving the rehabilitation of existing facilities, due diligence will be conducted to determine past or present social safeguard concerns and to identify corrective actions, as necessary. Capacity building on social safeguards will be provided to the executing agencies through ongoing ADB technical assistance.|
|Indigenous Peoples||Indigenous peoples (category C). Project preparation activities have determined that there will be no indigenous peoples issues associated with the project.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||During project preparation, consultation and coordination with stakeholders and development partners, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, bilateral donors, MDBs and communities, was achieved through regular workshops, meetings, and roundtable discussions. Consultation meetings and technical workshops were conducted with the community members and potential beneficiaries in several project areas. These included household surveys, consultation meeting for participatory vulnerability assessments, project design workshops, discussions on indicators to be used in the Design and Monitoring Framework (DMF), and validation of preliminary project engineering design.|
|During Project Implementation||
Regular consultations with stakeholders are built in the project implementation schedule. These include at least biannual participatory meeting between the executing agencies and the beneficiaries, regular consensus building meetings between female and male members of the communities, and regular project events. The executing agencies (EAs) will be responsible for ensuring transparency and proactive public communication. The EAs will share data and information, discuss progress, achievements, and issues faced in implementing the project. The EAs will ensure good communication with key stakeholders, including residents and farmers of the communities, community organizations, concerned government agencies especially at the district and jamoat levels, NGOs, and development partners operating in the same sector and in the project area. Stakeholders will be involved and informed about project activities levels including village, jamoat, district, oblast, and at the national level at various stages of project implementation.
At the village, jamoat, and district levels, the project implementation offices (PIOs) will inform regularly the villagers and community members about the scope, objectives, benefits, nature of the activities, and the adverse impact, if any, on the environment, the community, and the people themselves and associated mitigation measures, as appropriate. The views, interests, and concerns of the villagers and communities will be sought, addressed and reflected in the implementation plan and activities. To the extent possible farmers, villagers, and community members especially women will be hired on employment opportunities generated by the project through a consensus building process involving both men and women.
A communication plan will be finalized during the first three months of project implementation. Project information, including announcements of meetings, events, procurement and consulting services information, and safeguards information, will be posted in the jamoats' offices. A project website will be developed by the MLRWR and maintained throughout project implementation. KMK and the MOF will provide regular updates, documentation and data. The project website will be accessible to the public and will include the following information: (i) the project scope, structure, responsible agencies, impact, outcome, outputs; (ii) progress on the achievement of the project targets, with specific information on gender indicators and progress on the gender action plan targets; (iii) procurement and consulting services information, including announcement of bidding processes, bidding procedures, list of participating bidders, names of winning bidders, amount of contract awards and a description of the goods or services procured; (iv) all key safeguards documents, including environment and resettlement plans, and (v) details of planned public consultations and events. The project website will be updated regularly and its contents will be presented in the English, Russian and Tajik languages.
The PPCR website will also publish regular updates and announce project events.
The EAs will hold (i) biannual public participation meetings with NGOs, community organizations and other stakeholders to discuss project progress and collate views from community members; (ii) an interim project workshop in the third year of implementation to show progress and collate feedback, and (iii) a final project event in the sixth year of implantation to capture achievements and lessons learned.
An awareness campaign on the availability of training on climate resilient agriculture and financial literacy, and the availability of affordable finance for agribusiness and economic diversification will take place through radio and newspapers advertising. In addition, the EAs will ensure close collaboration with the PPCR National Coordination Mechanism.
The project will provide management support and assistance to ensure that project implementation fully complies with ADB's policies and operational requirements in terms of financial management, fund disbursement, procurement procedures, social and environment safeguards, and O&M. This will include external financial audit and monitoring of social and environment safeguards. A team of international and national consultants will be engaged by the executing agencies to provide management support during project implementation. A team of international and national consultants from nongovernment organizations (NGOs) will be engaged by the executing agencies to carry out the capacity building work in support of the outputs. All consultants and NGOs will be recruited according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2010, as amended from time to time).
An estimated 229 person-months of consulting services will be required to support the PMO under the ALRI (31 person-months international, including 5 person-months from an NGO; 198 person-months national, including 116 person-months from an NGO) to (i) facilitate project management and implementation, (ii) strengthen the institutional and operational capacity of the executing agency, and (iii) carry out capacity building of community groups. The consulting services will be provided by international consulting firms, national consulting firm(s), and NGO(s). An estimated 120 person-months of consulting services will be required to support the project implementation group under the KMK (18 person-months international, including 2.5 person-months from an NGO; 102 person-months national, including 29 person-months from an NGO) to (i) facilitate project management and implementation, (ii) strengthen the institutional and operational capacity of the executing agency, and (iii) carry out capacity building of community groups. An estimated 87 person-months of consulting services will be required to support the PMO under the MOF (10 person-months international, 77 person-months national) to (i) facilitate project management and implementation, (ii) strengthen the institutional and operational capacity of the executing agency, (iii) carry out feasibility studies and technical assessments, and (iv) build capacity of PFIs and potential borrowers and savers.
Each consulting firm will be engaged using the quality- and cost-based selection method with a quality cost ratio of 80:20. Full technical proposals will be required for each consulting service under the MLRWR and KMK. Simplified technical proposal will be required for each consulting service under the MOF. Detailed terms of reference for consultants to be engaged under the project are in the project administration manual.
|Procurement||All procurement of goods and works will be undertaken in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2010, as amended from time to time). Procurement of civil work will require seven contracts totaling $10.3 million, comprising four contracts for irrigation and flood and mudflow protection infrastructure totaling $7.5 million with international competitive bidding, three contracts for water supply infrastructure, of which two contracts totaling $2.1 million with international and one contract totalling $0.7 million with national competitive bidding. Procurement of goods will require seven contracts totaling $1.8 million, comprising heavy machinery totaling $0.9 million and drip irrigation equipment totaling $0.6 million with international competitive bidding, and vehicles and office furniture totaling $0.3 million with shopping method. Procurement of consulting services totaling $2.4 million will require four contracts for project implementation support, engineering supervision, and capacity building of community organizations. A procurement plan is included in the project administration manual.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Khojaev, Shukhrat|
|Responsible ADB Department||Central and West Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Tajikistan Resident Mission|
Agency of Land Reclamation and Irrigation
5/1 Shamci Street
Tajikistan Khochagii Manzilii Kommunali (KMK) (State Unitary Enterprise)
56 Karaboev Street
Tajikistan Ministry of Finance
3, Academic Rajabovs
|Concept Clearance||19 Dec 2011|
|Fact Finding||28 Jan 2013 to 09 Feb 2013|
|MRM||19 Apr 2013|
|Approval||25 Jul 2013|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||27 Mar 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|25 Jul 2013||18 Sep 2013||02 Dec 2013||30 Jun 2020||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Grant Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||22.70||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||0.00||25 Jul 2013||0.00||16.18||75%|
|Cofinancing||21.55||25 Jul 2013||0.00||14.94||69%|
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Protecting Tajikistan from Avalanches, Floods, and DroughtsThrough the Climate Investment Funds, ADB has been helping Tajikistan improve resilience to extreme weather events in the Pyanj River Basin, protecting land, crops, infrastructure, and saving human lives.