ADB is helping Viet Nam fund biogas plants across the country to process agricultural and rural household waste into biogas and bio-slurry, a clean organic fertilizer. The project will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote environmentally safe, climate-friendly waste management practices. It will also provide credit lines through financial intermediaries for biogas value chains.
|Project Name||Low Carbon Agricultural Support Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Agricultural policy, institutional and capacity development
Energy - Renewable energy generation - biomass and waste
Finance - Infrastructure finance and investment funds
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The Project will enhance climate smart agriculture development and practices focused on strengthening Low Carbong Agriculture (LCA) policies and institutions; establishing infrastructure support for agri-waste management; and, enhancing LCA technology and development transfer. These will be parts of climate change (CC) mitigation and adaptation measures to reduce green house gas (GHG) emission in 19 provinces of Viet Nam.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
The transformation of agriculture production into environment-friendly and sustainable system is fully aligned with the Government of Viet Nam (the Government) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) strategic and operational priorities on CC mitigation and adaptation. The Government has been continuously seeking green growth strategies to reduce its CC vulnerability. In recent years, many policies and regulations have been enacted, creating a conducive policy and legal framework. Consistent with these strategic priorities, ADB's environment, natural resources and agriculture sector investments in Viet Nam focus on rural infrastructure and water resources management for enhancing environmental sustainability and climate resilience.
Climate change is a development issue, rather than a solely environmental one; and its interrelationship with food security, bioenergy and poverty is complex. Inflation in Viet Nam reached 18% in 2011, the highest in the region, led by big rises in the cost of food, causing financial hardship for many people. While agriculture's share (20%) of the gross domestic product is declining, its output, however, is expanding. The sector remains a key contributor to exports (25%) and employment (70% of rural households, HHs). Agriculture is the largest contributor (43%) of the national GHG emission. GHG emissions from the burning of biomass in open fields are also significant . Over 40% of arable land is degraded because of heavy use of inorganic fertilizers and other unsustainable agricultural practices. Deforestation has been continuously increasing since about 56% of Vietnamese HHs still rely on the unsustainable harvest of firewood for their energy needs. The use of firewood for cooking creates indoor pollution, causing serious respiratory diseases, especially among rural women and children.
The Government is promoting the use of abundant biomass sources, such as livestock manure and other agri-wastes, to produce biogas as a clean energy source for rural HHs. The _reduce, reuse, and recycle_ of agricultural wastes will decrease GHG emission and the release of harmful wastes into the environment. The biogas plants (BPs) have the following benefits: (i) reduced: human and livestock disease outbreaks; methane emissions; fuel/fire wood consumption; water, air (in and out door) and land pollutants; and (ii) increased: savings in time and money, quantity of organic fertilizers; and potential access to carbon credit revenue (CR) schemes. From an ADB supported project , BPs have been found to have financial internal rates of return of 54% and economic rates of return of 55% with increases in HH incomes averaging 86%.
The Government has targeted the country to construct four million of small scale biogas plants (SBPs) by 2020 (from about 0.5 million in 2010 ) to cover the need of about 8.5 million small livestock farms. Significant acceleration is also required for medium and large scale biogas plants (MBPs and LBPs), since only less than 100 MBPs and LBPs were constructed (out of existing 21,000 medium and large livestock farms). Further improvement is required for biogas development, such as bio-slurry, livestock farm and other value chain management. Beyond the infrastructure support, additional investment on the regulatory, knowledge, technology development, diffusion and extension to continuously enhance climate smart agriculture practices and transfer, is also required.
|Impact||Less agriculture-related pollution|
|Description of Outcome||Greater uptake of Climate Smart Agricultural Waste Management Practices (CSAWMP)|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
- Research packages: The first of the research packages was advertised in September 2016. The TOR of the remaining 5 packages were being revised following ADB's comments.
- Demonstrations: The first BD of the 7 demonstration packages was sent to ADB for review.
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Expanded Use of Livestock Waste Management Infrastructure
2. Credit Lines for Biogas Value Chains and other climate smart agriculture waste management investments
3. Enhanced Climate Smart Agriculture Waste Management Practices (CSAWMP) technology transfer
4. Effective project management
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
As of 31 Dec 2016, a total of 43.157 SBVCs, 08 MBPs and 02 LBPs have been constructed by livestock farming HH of which 2.139 SBPs (5%) are constructed for ethnic minorities in 3 selected provinces. (Son La: 925 SBPs, Bac Giang: 394 SBPs, Soc Trang: 820 SBPs).
There are two more provinces have SBPs constructed for ethnic minorities: Lao Cai: 792 SBPs, Phu Tho: 115 SBPs.
45.775 SBP operators, 375 masons, 1.125 technicians, 28 engineers and 10
16,040 trainees on biogas use are women (accounting for 35%).
19 trainees on SBP construction are women (accounting for 5%).
272 trainees on biogas management and technical issues are women (accounting for 24.2%)
National biogas database established, sofware to merge data on biogas plants procured.
Up to Q4.2016, 28,606 biogas plants under LCASP have been updated to the database software with 22.335 biogas plants imported both husband's and wife's names.
By Q4/2016, 335 sub-loans have been disbursed with total 13.5 billion VND of which 46% of credit lines are under account on behalf of women.
The 2 financial intermediaries participated in Project are VBARD and Co-op Bank. MARD submitted ADB the request for inclusion of VBSP as an additional FI.
As of 31 December 2016, ICMD funds are fully channeled into 29,487 accounts of beneficiaries.
- ADB and MARD approved the list of 7 demonstration models and updated to Procurement Plan. ADB has no objection for the request for proposal of package 32.-The Project has organized training courses for extension staffs and farmers on CSAWMP.
- The project conducted domestic study tours to share experiences of livestock waste management technologies.
The detailed project implementation plan (DPIP) of CPMU and PPMUs have been completed and agreed by ADB. The DPIPs, which replace the research strategy, have been updated periodically to support implementation of CPMU and PPMUs
CPMU completed the identification of knowledge gaps and 06 research packages have been identified.
A CPMU and 10 PPMUs established in second quarter of 2013. To date, approximately 46% of staff is women. The gender focal point was appointed in 2016.
Monitoring and Evaluation consultant has been mobilized and conducted M&E tools for DMF, GAP, Loan covenant, and Training data.
A consultancy provider to gather baseline data has been recruited and conducted surveys in all project provinces.
The gender consultant has been mobilized and now supporting all gender related activities.
Not yet done
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
The safeguard categorization for environment is B. The extent and nature of environmental impacts are influenced by the fact that the biogas plant and other CSAP investments will be subject to a screening process that will exclude those that may carry significant negative impacts. As such, no biogas plant and other CSAP investments with expected significant environmental adverse impacts (category A according to ADB screening procedures) will be selected.
The potential environmental impacts will be addressed by the Project as follows: (i) careful design of CSAP investments to ensure that increased capacities are accommodated, (ii) development of management plans for the re-use and/or proper disposal of agri-waste, (iii) careful design for biogas plants and other CSAP assets, (iv) provision for collection and disposal of solid waste from rural areas, (v) studies appropriate mitigation measures for any perceived negative impact, (vi) inclusion of contract requirements for contractors to quality control for and carry out all practicable steps to mitigate construction impacts, (vii) increased attention to ensure adequate maintenance of biogas plants and other CSAP assets, and (viii) safety awareness programs are conducted in each of CSAP investment.
Management of the preparation and implementation of each BP and other CSAP investment will be the responsibility of each asset investor. Relevant agencies will be empowered from national to commune level. They will operate in close coordination with the PPMU. Technical support for all aspects of project management and implementation will be provided by the safeguard consultants hired by the CPMU.
An initial environmental examination (IEE) has been prepared for the project, which outlines the potential adverse environmental impacts and mitigation measures. An environmental management plan has been included in the IEE. During the project implementation, IEE will be prepared as necessary within a Category B classification in accordance with the approved environmental assessment and review framework (EARF) and the approved IEE prepared during the design phase.
The PPC, through the PPMU will have responsibility for ensuring that all mitigation measures are implemented. The IEE of the first proposed MBP and the IEE of the first proposed LBP will be submitted to ADB for review and approval prior to construction. If the quality is acceptable and consistent with ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement 2009 then the subsequent IEEs can be approved by the Project Director in the CPMU. In provinces where MBPs and LBPs will be installed, an environment specialist from the relevant Provincial Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DONRE) will be seconded to the PPMU for environmental management and monitoring tasks.
The approved IEE is adequate and there is no need for further detailed study or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). No additional study or follow-up EIA is needed under the ADB system, without prejudice to other requirements that the government may enforce under Viet Nam's policy, legal and administrative framework governing EIA.
|Involuntary Resettlement||The safeguard categorization is C for involuntary resettlement. No action is required since the project requires no land acquisition and has no involuntary resettlement impacts. Biogas value chain (BVC) management infrastructure will be constructed on land belonging to the BVC owners. The project selection criteria will exclude activities that entail land acquisition and/or involuntary resettlement. MARD and the implementing agencies will monitor and ensure that land to be used for the construction and operation of BVCs are within that owned by the BVC owners/beneficiaries.|
The safeguard categorization is B for indigenous people therefore an Indigenous Peoples Plan (ethnic minority development plan, EMDP, in local term) was prepared. The IPP/EMDP objective is to design and implement the project in a way that fosters full respect for indigenous people/ethnic minority identity, dignity, human rights, livelihood system, and cultural uniqueness as defined by the indigenous people/ethnic minority themselves so that they: (i) receive culturally appropriate social and economic benefits, (ii) do not suffer adverse impacts as a result of the Project, and (iii) can participate actively in the various investments funded by the Project.
Measures were taken in designing the Project to encourage participation and contribution of the indigenous people/ethnic minority based on the recognition of their unique social and cultural characteristics that may require customized approaches and interventions. This includes: (i) the screening of CSAWMP investments to include indigenous people/ethnic minority as the project beneficiaries; (ii) targeted 5% of SBP for indigenous people/ethnic minority focused in three sample provinces; (iii) Indigenous people/ethnic minority involvement in the construction, management, capacity development/skills training, as maintenance operators and masons of biogas and other CSAWMP investments; (iv) additional human resources support to ensure that indigenous people/ethnic minority received adequate technical support and advise when needed.
The relevant agencies will encourage indigenous people/ethnic minority participation as members for equal access and control in various aspects of biogas development. The IPP/EMDP was prepared to address the twin issues of risk mitigation and benefit enhancement. It is based on the findings of the social assessment and results of consultations with key stakeholders in three sample provinces of Bac Giang, Soc Trang, and Son La Province undertaken during the project's fact-finding mission. It is in line with Government strategies for indigenous people/ethnic minority as well as ADB SPS (2009) requirement 3. Adequate human and financial resources have been allocated to facilitate the implementation of IPP/EMDP.
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation||
The Project has been designed to improve the well-being of poor people, especially the vulnerable and excluded groups, through a series of investments in biogas plants and other CSAWMP assets. During project implementation, the process of consultation will continue throughout the feasibility study and detailed design phase of each biogas plant and other CSAP investments to afford community groups the opportunity to voice their views on how the Project is to be implemented and operated to benefit them. This will be accomplished through a series of community consultation meetings at commune and district level. Community consultations with ethnic minority groups shall be tailored to the needs of ethnic minorities and conducted in a culturally- appropriate manner.
The community consultation meetings will be carried out by the PPMUs in collaboration with financial intermediaries, and the design and safeguard consultants. It will include the participation of representatives from the District People's Committee, the Commune People's Committee, and mass organizations such as the Women's Unions, the Farmers' Union and the Youth Union. The communities will be briefed on all aspects of the Project including the detailed investments and the safeguard issues of environment, social, management and financial aspects of the Project. Women will be particularly encouraged to actively participate in the consultation meetings and voice their opinions and views about the subproject design and implementation arrangements.
The community will also be informed of the O&M arrangements for the biogas plants and other CSAP value chain investment and their expected participation in kind or otherwise in this aspect of the work. They will be encouraged to provide ideas and feedback to the design team and raise their concerns regarding potential negative impacts of the biogas plants and other supporting value chain infrastructure on the environment and the welfare of the community. The feedback obtained from these community consultation meetings will be incorporated as necessary in the detailed design of biogas plants and the supporting investments. The process of consultation is expected to build ownership of the biogas plants and other investments by the owners as well as the community and hence foster better sustainability of the investment.
During planning process, it is anticipated that the community will be mobilized in a number of different ways during the design, implementation and operation of different CSAP investments. Since most of the CSAP assets involved biogas plant construction and other supporting value chain infrastructure, there is a scope for the community to participate in the selection of the site and alignment for instance. Most of the assets are privately owned by households or enterprises. The potential benefits of the investments to the overall communities will be assessed during consultation meetings.
During the construction phase of biogas plants and their value chain infrastructure, a significant opportunity for active participation, and for many poor households to benefit from the Project, is in providing wage labor. This will be encouraged through various training for technicians and the bidding documents which will request the contractors to investigate this option whenever possible, especially for MBPs and LBPs. It will also be possible for communities to participate effectively in the supervision of the construction works.
The community will also be required to participate in the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the completed biogas plants and other value chain infrastructure whenever possible, such as through promotion of the use of bioslurry for organic fertilizers; connection of gas and electricity produced by biogas plants to the neighborhood or public grids; provision of labor or in some cases cost and revenue sharing for common uses of the assets.
|Responsible ADB Officer||Ranawana, S.|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Viet Nam Resident Mission|
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Room 305 Building A15
10 Nugen Cong Hoan Street
Ba Dinh District, Hanoi, Vietnam
|Concept Clearance||07 May 2012|
|Fact Finding||15 May 2012 to 24 May 2012|
|MRM||14 Aug 2012|
|Approval||12 Dec 2012|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||24 Jan 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|12 Dec 2012||07 Mar 2013||05 Jun 2013||30 Jun 2019||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||84.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||74.00||12 Dec 2012||11.88||0.00||18%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||12 Dec 2012||16.84||0.00||25%|
|Status of Covenants|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Low Carbon Agricultural Support Project: Environmental Monitoring Report (June-December 2016)||Environmental Monitoring Reports||Jun 2017|
|Low Carbon Agricultural Support Project: Ethnic Minority Development Plan Monitoring Report (January-December 2016)||Social Monitoring Reports||Jan 2017|
|Low Carbon Agricultural Support Project: Ethnic Minority Development Plan||Indigenous Peoples Plans/Indigenous Peoples Development Plans||Jun 2012|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
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