The technical assistance project will (i) review the current status of sewage and household solid waste management in rural areas of the PRC, (ii) examine experiences and evidence accumulated in developed countries; (iii) analyze the feasibility and effectiveness of, and constraints on, various approaches to sewage and household solidwaste management in the PRC context, and recommend policy options and programs with regard to the TA findings; and (iv) prepare a knowledge product summarizing the findings.
|Project Name||Policy and Management System Development for Rural Environmental Protection|
|Country||China, People's Republic of
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Land-based natural resources management - Water-based natural resources management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming|
|Description||The technical assistance project will (i) review the current status of sewage and household solid waste management in rural areas of the PRC, (ii) examine experiences and evidence accumulated in developed countries; (iii) analyze the feasibility and effectiveness of, and constraints on, various approaches to sewage and household solidwaste management in the PRC context, and recommend policy options and programs with regard to the TA findings; and (iv) prepare a knowledge product summarizing the findings.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Environmental degradation in rural areas of PRC has become a pressing issue, threatening the livelihood and health of the rural population, as well as neighboring urban centers. Pollution of surface water has been particularly serious, resulting in a large percentage of the rural population having to draw on unsafe sources for drinking water. Rural residents are highly vulnerable to the public health hazards of water pollution due to their limited access to centralized water supply systems. Of the 409 sections of major rivers where water quality is monitored, 40% of the sections were found to have water quality that was unsafe water for human consumption and about 16.4% had water quality that was unsafe for any use. Major sources of water pollution in rural areas include agricultural runoff, untreated sewage, industrial and household solid waste, and livestock discharges from intensive animal production enterprises. In most small towns and villages, there are virtually no pollution control measures to deal with sewage and animal waste.
Recognizing the serious status of the rural environment, the government has issued a number of policy guidance documents and devoted significant resources to deal with the challenges including the _Promoting Treatment through Incentives Program_. Under this program, launched in 2008, the central government has established special funds to supplement local government resources for implementing rural environmental improvement projects. The government is committed to improving the rural environment, as reflected in the 12th Five-Year Plan. Better quality drinking water sources is a key government priority, which contributes to reducing rural/urban disparities and improved rural livelihoods. The plan emphasizes strengthening of monitoring and enforcement of water quality measures and raising public awareness. The plan also addresses centralized treatment of sewage and solid waste from rural areas near urban centers, and the adoption of appropriate low cost, low maintenance technologies for small-scale treatment in remote rural areas.
Although the government has made some progress in improving the rural environment, the challenges are daunting. Rural households are distributed over large geographical areas, making it difficult to achieve economies of scale in collection and treatment. Waste management measures would be prohibitively high if patterned on urban approaches. The widening income gap between rural and urban areas has meant that there are very limited resources in rural areas for investing in the infrastructure required for treating sewage and solid wastes. Further, it is unlikely that user fees could finance the required infrastructure, as rural households are relatively poor. Similarly, the institutional capacity in rural areas for environmental monitoring and enforcement is weak. In most small towns and villages, there is little, if any, capacity for land use planning or environmental monitoring and enforcement. Public awareness by the rural population of the importance of environmental protection is low. Littering and dumping of household garbage is prevalent, which further aggravates environmental problems in rural areas and reduces the effectiveness of measures to collect garbage for centralized treatment.
|Impact||Improved policy and regulatory framework for rural environmental protection infrastructure in the PRC|
|Description of Outcome||Improved management framework for sewage and household solid-waste management in rural areas|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||
A background review of the current status of rural sewage and household solid-waste management in the PRC conducted
A review of international experiences in rural sewage and household solid-waste management conducted
Policy recommendations for improving rural sewage and household solid-waste management in the PRC prepared
A knowledge product prepared
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
The final review mission was fielded on 11 June 2015. Progress made since the interim review mission with regards to the activities and deliverables under the TA outputs were: (i) conduct of second provincial consultation mission, (ii) submission of the draft final report and draft knowledge product, and (iii) conduct of overseas study tour.
During the final review of the TA, it was agreed that it is important to address the legal, institutional and other issues to ensure proper design and operation and maintenance of the facilities. Sustainable financing and O&M of waste treatment facilities are critical issues to be addressed. Based on the review of international experience, the consultant team should propose innovative solutions that are applicable to the PRC situation. Detailed steps should be recommended as part of a road map to sustainable financing and management of rural sewage and solid waste treatment and disposal facilities. Also important is to propose approaches and outline steps that should be followed to choose the right technologies based on the local conditions to ensure financial viability and environmental safety and ensuring that regional differences are considered to ensure that technologies are tuned to local conditions.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||A consulting firm will be engaged to assist ADB and the executing agency in the implementation of the TA. The firm will provide a total of 26 person-months of consulting services, which will involve 3 international consultants (10 person-months) and 3 national consultants (16 person-months). The consultants will be engaged following ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2010, as amended from time to time), using the quality- and cost-based selection method, with a quality-cost ratio of 80:20.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Yu, Fei|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, EARD|
|Concept Clearance||28 Jun 2013|
|Fact Finding||23 May 2013 to 28 May 2013|
|Approval||11 Sep 2013|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||11 Sep 2015|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|11 Sep 2013||04 Oct 2013||04 Oct 2013||31 Mar 2015||30 Sep 2015||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|1,000,000.00||100,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||1,100,000.00||11 Sep 2013||506,588.04|
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Policy and Management System Development for Rural Environmental Protection: Technical Assistance Completion Report||TA Completion Reports||Mar 2016|
|Policy and Management System Development for Rural Environmental Protection||Technical Assistance Reports||Sep 2013|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
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Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
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