||The project will enable coastal communities, and the institutions that support them, to manage coral reef resources, and associated ecosystems and biodiversity in a sustainable manner for increasing the economic and social welfare of coastal communities. COREMAP-CTI will support the government's sector development plan and national targets for establishing effective MPAs. Project implementation will focus on improving the management, sustainability and resilience of marine protected areas (MPAs). Interventions will target three national and seven district marine protected areas (MPAs) located in (i) Bintan, Batam, Lingga, and Natuna districts in Riau province; (ii) Central Tapanuli and North Nias districts in North Sumatra province; (iii) Mentawai district in West Sumatra province; (iv) Anambas national MPA in Anambas district, Riau province; (v) Pulau Pieh national MPA in Pariaman district, West Sumatra Province; and (vi) Gilimatra national MPA in North Lombok district, West Nusa Tenggara province (project area).
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
Indonesia is the largest archipelagic nation with 18% of the world's coral reefs hosting the most diverse marine flora and fauna. Indonesia's coastal ecosystems serve as an important base for the country's economic growth. Sustainable management of the coral reef ecosystem is, therefore, a major objective of Indonesia's marine and fisheries sector development plan, which in turn is guided by (i) the National Long Term Development Plan (2005-2025), (ii) the Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014), and (iii) the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) Strategic Plan (2010-2014). The government has a suite of policies to address sector issues that relates to coastal and marine resource management, including policies on environment, fisheries, forestry, small islands development, marine tourism, marine transportation and mining. Collectively, these policies articulate the government's priorities for the sector and comprise the sector development plan(s). Indonesia has also played a central role in the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF), a six-country program of regional cooperation to sustainably manage coastal and marine resources in the region.
Low awareness of coastal communities, inadequate institutional capacity to contain land and marine-based pollution, insufficient institutional frameworks and capacity to effectively manage MPAs, and persistent poverty in coastal areas, has resulted in degradation of about 70% of Indonesian coral reef ecosystem. To address these root causes, the Government of Indonesia has adopted a multi-faceted approach focusing on (i) institutional capacity building; (ii) development of models for the establishment and effective management of MPAs; and (iii) reduction of coastal poverty through income-generating infrastructure and sustainable livelihoods. This project represents the last of a three-phase program in which ADB and the World Bank are working in close cooperation with the government in complementary geographic areas. The first phase (COREMAP I) established a viable framework for a national coral reef management system in Indonesia. The second phase (COREMAP II) consolidated the knowledge base and adopted a community-based approach for decentralized coral reef management and built strong public awareness on coral reef conservation. COREMAP Phase II initiated institutional development for model MPA systems and tested the feasibility of sustainable livelihood activities for reducing fishing pressures in targeted coastal communities. The ADB and World Bank project completion reports for Phase II described several lessons learned which will be incorporated in the COREMAP-CTI Project design. These include the need for (i) commitment and support from local government bodies; (ii) integration of value chain analysis of livelihood activities in the project design; and (iii) effective mainstreaming of gender concerns.
The project will contribute to meeting the marine and fisheries sector development plan's overall targets to develop 20.0 million ha of MPAs by 2020 (of which 15.7 million ha has been achieved by 2012) and to effectively manage 15 threatened, endangered and endemic species. The project will create models for effectively managed MPAs and sustainable microenterprise models for communities. This consolidation phase will develop model MPAs with management effectiveness, financial sustainability, capacity for community co-management and enforcement of regulations. The project is aligned with Indonesia's Country Partnership Strategy 2012- 2014 with regard to its two strategic pillars of inclusive growth and environmental sustainability. The project is also aligned with Indonesia's National Plan of Action (NPOA) for the CTI and ADB's package of technical assistance support to implement the NPOA.