The Asian Development Bank is working with People’s Republic of China to reduce pollution and recurrent flooding which is harming living standards in the upper Qing River Basin in Hubei province. The project is financing a new wastewater treatment plant in Enshi Tujia, expansion and upgrades of sewer pump stations and pipelines, and construction of over 100 kilometers of protective river embankments.
|Project Name||Hubei Enshi Qing River Upstream Environment Rehabilitation Project|
|Country||China, People's Republic of
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Rural sanitation - Water-based natural resources management
Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban flood protection - Urban sewerage
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The project will address inadequate wastewater collection and treatment, extensive nonpoint source pollution, and recurrent flooding that affect living standards and sustainable economic development in the Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (ETMAP) of Hubei province. The impact will be the improved environmental ecological sustainability in the upper Qing River basin . The outcome will be the improved river health and water resource management in the upper Qing River basin. The project's expected outputs are: (i) wastewater management improved; (ii) flood management enhanced; (iii) water and environmental management integrated; and (iv) inclusive capacity development strengthened.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Located in the upper Qing River basin (a major tributary of the Yangtze River), the ETMAP has an ethnically diverse population of 4.01 million. Because of its mountainous terrain and lack of connectivity, ETMAP's per capita income in 2012 was only CNY10,327, which was about half of the provincial level; the poverty incidence is 40% in rural areas. The ETMAP includes two cities at district level Enshi and Lichuan and six counties, which are all designated as national poverty areas. In addition to poverty, water quality deterioration, riverbank erosion, and recurrent flooding are key factors undermining living standards and sustainable economic development in the ETMAP.
The Qing River is the primary water supply for Enshi and Lichuan and their surrounding rural populations. Since the 1990s, the water quality of the Qing River and its tributaries has deteriorated. Monitoring data show that water quality in 45% of all cross sections is class IV, V, or below, meaning it is unfit for human consumption. Water pollution is most serious in Enshi and Lichuan, resulting in odor and eutrophication. Continuing deterioration of the water quality poses a public health threat for local residents, who rely on the river for their water use. In addition, the degraded water environment threatens Qing River riparian and aquatic ecosystems, and limits opportunities for ecological diversity and tourism-related recreation.
The major sources of pollution are untreated domestic wastewater, unregulated runoff, and inadequately treated industrial effluent. As a result of prolonged underinvestment, wastewater collection and treatment facilities in Enshi and Lichuan are seriously deficient. Less than 60% of wastewater from Enshi and Lichuan is collected and treated because of the lack of treatment capacity, aging pipelines, and incomplete coverage of wastewater collection systems. This problem will become increasingly serious with economic development and rapid urbanization, as projected in the master plans for Enshi and Lichuan. Further, there are no facilities for collection and treatment of domestic wastewater and solid waste in rural areas along the Qing River and its tributaries.
Upstream of Enshi and Lichuan, the Qing River watershed is mountainous with high seasonal rainfall and rapid runoff. This, combined with inadequate flood management facilities, results in regular flooding. Following national flood management standards, flood management facilities in Enshi and Lichuan should provide protection against 20-year floods in the short term and 50-year floods in the long term. The existing facilities only provide protection against a maximum of 4-year floods. There are some revetments along the banks within Enshi and a mid-sized multipurpose reservoir on the upper Qing River. However, there are virtually no revetments or other flood control measures along the Qing River and its tributaries flowing through Lichuan. Since the 1950s, at least nine major floods have occurred, resulting in significant loss of lives and property. There has also been severe riverbank erosion as a result of high-intensity rainfall, loss of vegetation, and lack of revetment works. This has caused heavy siltation of the river and blockage in urban sections of the Qing River and its tributaries, which further exacerbates flood risk and water pollution.
Lack of integrated water resource management in the Qing River basin hinders a coordinated and effective response by planning, pollution control, and flood management authorities to improve water quality and reduce flooding. Weak interagency coordination and lack of monitoring and enforcement capacity have resulted in ineffective management of nonpoint source pollution from rural and urban sources. Important rural sources include discharges of domestic waste from unsewered rural households, agricultural runoff, animal waste discharges, and erosion of riverbanks during high-flow conditions. In urban areas, unregulated runoff along the riverbanks also contributes to nonpoint pollution, including garbage dumped along the riverbanks and inflow of wastewater due to leaks, clogging, and misalignment of wastewater pipes. While the river embankment is a critical flood management facility, proper maintenance of the banks would also help reduce nonpoint pollution.
Guided by both the national western region development strategy and the Hubei provincial 12th Five-Year Plan (2011 2015), the Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Government (ETMAPG) is committed to reducing poverty, improving the water quality of Qing River, and advancing the ecological rehabilitation of the river and lakes. The ETMAP is covered under the Water Pollution Control Plan for the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and the Upper Reaches, which is one of the national priorities for water pollution control. The provincial government has formulated and approved the Qing River Basin Pollution Prevention and Control Master Plan (2010 2020) and the ETMAPG has prepared the Qing River Near-Term Flood Control Master Plan (2013 2015), which was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Water Resources. To implement and complement components of these plans, the ETMAPG requested that the Asian Development Bank (ADB) provide financial and technical support for water quality improvement and flood management in Enshi and Lichuan.
With support from the central and provincial governments, the ETMAPG has taken the following steps to implement the master plans: (i) incorporate water quality improvement goals in performance evaluation of local governments; and (ii) implement more than 30 projects with a total investment of CNY8 billion for sewage network improvement, solid-waste management, nonpoint source pollution reduction, river rehabilitation, and soil erosion control in 2014.
The project is consistent with the priorities of ADB's country partnership strategy, 2011 2015 for the PRC; the comprehensive reform agenda announced at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Communist Party of China Central Committee; the strategic priorities of ADB's Midterm Review of Strategy 2020, and the Water Operational Plan. Environmental sustainability is one of the three strategic pillars of the country partnership strategy. The comprehensive reform agenda announced at the third plenum emphasized the need for better environmental infrastructure and the strengthening of institutional development and environmental services at the local level.
|Impact||Environmental ecological sustainability in the upstream Qing river basin improved (Qing River Basin Pollution Prevention and Control Master Plan, 2010- 2020)|
|Description of Outcome||River health and flood management in the upper Qing river basin improved|
|Progress Toward Outcome||
Contracts of EC02 and LC01 are being signed in Q1 2017. Two agencies for external resettlement and social monitoring / Project Impementation and Institutional Strengthening Support are being recruited in March 2017. The other consultant team for non-structural measures for Qing River integrated management will be recruited in 2017.
|Description of Project Outputs||
Flood management enhanced
Wastewater management improved
Water and environmental management integrated
Project management support and inclusive capacity development strengthened
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
1. Construction and procurement of component 1 will start in Q2 2017.
2. The contract of the first national competitive bidding (NCB) for works in Enshi (EC02) was signed on 06 March 2017. The PCSS NO. will be issued after receiving/reviewing the contract delivered by EA. The contract of the first NCB for works in Lichuan (LC01) is under negotiation and will be signed before end of March.
3. Construciton and procurement for component 3 will start in 2017.
4.The Consulting Firms for Resettlement and Social Monitoring and Project Implementation and Institutional Strengthening Support are being recruited in March 2017.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||The project is classified as category A for environment and an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management plan (EMP) have been prepared following ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS, 2009). The EIA and EMP were disclosed on 26 November 2014. The project is expected to achieve environmental benefits including improved water quality of Qing River in the project area, reduced flood risk, increased wastewater treatment capacity, improved sewage coverage for about 40,000 households and improved water resources management capacity of ETMAPG. Potential environmental impacts are from the planned dredging and embankment, and construction- and operation- related disturbances. During EIA preparation, consultations were conducted with key stakeholders and the outcomes have been integrated into the project design. The ETMAPG, through the project management office (PMO), will be responsible for overall implementation and compliance with the EMP. The PMO and implementing agencies will be responsible for site-based implementation of the EMP. The PMO will have final responsibility for the implementation of the grievance redress mechanism to handle any disputes. The EIA concludes that the anticipated environmental impacts and risks can be mitigated through the implementation of the EMP.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||The project is categorized as A for involuntary resettlement under ADB's SPS (2009). It will permanently acquire a total of 73.15 hectares of land; additional 145.28 hectares will be occupied temporarily. The project will demolish 12,778 square meters of housing. It will economically displace 5,431 people, with 1,645 to lose more than 10% of their agricultural productive assets and 143 to be physically displaced. The ETMAPG prepared two resettlement plans for Enshi and Lichuan, in line with ADB's SPS (2009), and related laws and regulations of Enshi and Lichuan, Hubei Province, and the PRC. The ETMAPG will fully finance CNY132.607 million of land acquisition and resettlement costs. The ADB loan will finance the costs for semiannual external resettlement monitoring and evaluation. The ETMAPG has experience in conducting land acquisition and resettlement for foreign-funded projects and has the capacity to implement the resettlement plans for this project. Implementation will be closely monitored by the PMO and PIUs.|
|Indigenous Peoples||The project is categorized as B for indigenous peoples under ADB's SPS. ETMAP has an ethnically diverse population of 4.01 million; 45% Han, 46% Tujia, 6.5% Miao, and 2.5% other ethnic groups; the project area has similar levels of ethnic diversity. The ethnic minorities have socio-economic and livelihood systems similar to the mainstream population in terms of income, economic activities, education, and no language or other cultural barriers were identified. They will benefit equally from the project activities. To ensure the benefits are accrued by the ethnic minorities, an ethnic minority development plan was prepared and endorsed by ETMAPG.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||All consulting services will be engaged in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time).|
|Procurement||All ADB-financed procurement for the project will be conducted in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2013, as amended from time to time). A procurement agency will be hired to conduct procurement on behalf of the implementing agencies.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Liu, Xinjian|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||PRC Resident Mission|
The People's Government of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
No. 223, Wu Yang Da Dao,
Hubei Province, 445000
|Concept Clearance||09 Aug 2013|
|Fact Finding||17 Nov 2014 to 26 Nov 2014|
|MRM||12 Feb 2015|
|Approval||11 Sep 2015|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||20 Mar 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|11 Sep 2015||03 Nov 2015||06 Jan 2016||31 Jan 2021||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||231.62||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||100.00||11 Sep 2015||8.26||0.00||8%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||11 Sep 2015||10.00||0.00||10%|
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ADB Loan Supports Improved Water, Flood Protection in Hubei PrefectureADB has approved a $100 million loan for the Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Hubei Province to address environmental and public health concerns associated with water pollution and flooding in the region.