Regional: The Urbanization-Poverty-Inequality Triangle in Asia and the Pacific
The proposed technical assistance (TA) will (i) identify the drivers of urbanization and project urbanization trends, both within DMCs and regionally; (ii) analyze the impact of urbanization on poverty, inequality, and other socioeconomic variables; (iii) explore policy implications; and (iv) communicate the findings through written materials, conferences, workshops, and seminars.
Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department
Request for information
- Technical Assistance
- Public sector management
|Project Name||The Urbanization-Poverty-Inequality Triangle in Asia and the Pacific|
|Country / Economy||Regional
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Public sector management / Economic affairs management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming|
|Description||The proposed technical assistance (TA) will (i) identify the drivers of urbanization and project urbanization trends, both within DMCs and regionally; (ii) analyze the impact of urbanization on poverty, inequality, and other socioeconomic variables; (iii) explore policy implications; and (iv) communicate the findings through written materials, conferences, workshops, and seminars.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Poverty and inequality profiles in Asia and the Pacific, including in the developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), are undergoing fundamental changes as a result of unprecedented urbanization. Most DMCs face tremendous challenges with little preparation, including how to confront the urbanization of poverty and emerging income polarization. In particular, the trend of rising inequality in the region may be related to rapid urbanization, as hypothesized by Nobel Laureate Simon Kuznets.
In general, urbanization is accompanied by flows of production factors, in particular labor,from the low-productivity rural sector to high-productivity manufacturing and service industries. Therefore, urbanization and growth appear to be positively correlated. This implies a negative correlation between poverty and urbanization, all other things being equal. However, the work of Kuznets postulates that the relationship between inequality and growth or urbanization takes the form of an inverted U. Consequently, inequality cannot be held constant during rapid urbanization, and the poverty-urbanization relationship is no longer deductible. In short, the urbanization-poverty-inequality triangle, although very important to a host of stakeholders including ADB and its DMCs, is complex and intriguing.
Few economic analyses have been conducted regarding the urbanization-poverty-inequality relationship in the context of ADB DMCs, notwithstanding several ADB reports on urban issues (e.g., ADB's 2011 report on inclusive cities). A total of 90 publications in the Econlit database contain the keywords _urbanization_ and _poverty_, and 77 publications have the keywords _urbanization_ and _inequality_ in their abstracts or titles. However, only 11 of these 167 publications are related to ADB DMCs. The JSTOR database contains a total of 28 such publications, but only one is related to ADB DMCs.
There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the urbanization-poverty-inequality relationship, especially with regard to the impacts of urbanization on poverty and inequality in ADB DMCs. The lack of accessible knowledge products that elucidate this relationship hampers the efforts by DMCs and development institutions to fight poverty and promote inclusive growth.
|Impact||The impact of the TA will be improved understanding of stakeholders regarding the urbanization-poverty-inequality interrelationship|
|Description of Outcome||TA research findings are utilized by development experts and researchers, both within ADB and beyond|
|Progress Toward Outcome||As of August 2020, more than 30 citations were found for the published working papers and journal articles produced under the TA, and the land value capture (LVC) report was cited by 3 ADB documents (co-published with multilateral organizations), one blog post, and a local newspaper.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Published research on urbanization-poverty-inequality triangle, land value capture, and other urbanization-related topics.
Workshops and conferences for knowledge sharing and dissemination.
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||The TA produced a total of 10 research papers: 4 articles published in ADBEconomics Working Paper Series, 3 in ADBI Working Paper Series, one each in Asian Development Review, Asian Economic Policy Review, and The Philippine Statistician.The TA produced 32 background papers which provided substantial inputs in the preparation of the theme chapter of ADO 2019 Update, the LVC report, working papers, and journal articles.The LVC report, Sustaining Transit Investment in Asia's Cities: A Beneficiary-Funding and Land Value Capture Perspective, was published in April 2019.The TA supported the development of a geo-referenced urban database covering over 1,500 cities in 43 economies in Asia and the Pacific. The database, containing shape, land area, population and a variety of city characteristics, was used as the main data source for the theme chapter of ADO 2019 Update. In addition, the TA supported collection of detailed trip data from Google Maps in selected Asian cities. It was used to develop an innovative measure of congestion across Asian cities, which was reported in ADO 2019 Update as well. The TA supported 8 workshops and conferences to discuss policy issues and new research findings on urbanization in the region with experts and policy makers, and disseminate knowledge outputs.|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation||Inception or brainstorming meetings, workshops and in-country discussions were conducted to consult with academic professionals, government officials, and the private sectors. Their active participation in these events were very helpful in getting their feedback and suggestions in the preparations of the knowledge products. Leading experts, young researchers, and government officials also participated actively in conferences held under the TA, which helped to disseminate ADB knowledge product and promote ADB as knowledge bank in the field.|
|Consulting Services||The TA is expected to finance up to 89 person-months of consulting services. In addition to the comparative studies (para. 14), the consultants will study a combination of different themes, issues, and DMCs. Some will focus on cross-country research while others will conduct country case studies. Given the large number of countries covered in this TA and the meager literature on the urbanization-poverty-inequality triangle, the following allocation is proposed. The comparative cross-country studies will be conducted by international consultants: nine economists (13.5 person-months), three urban development specialists (4.5 person-months), and two social development specialists (3 person-months). The country-specific case studies will be conducted by national consultants: eight country economists (16 person-months) and two country social development specialists (4 person-months). The research teams will be assisted by an economics editor (national, 12 person-months) and two research assistants (national, 36 person-months). The TA will also make provision for the participation of resource persons (2 person-months) who will provide technical inputs and guidance during the workshops, conferences, seminars, or launch activities. Each resource person assignment will not exceed 10 working days.All consultants will be recruited and engaged individually by ADB in accordance with its Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time).|
|Procurement||The TA requires both micro and macro data for the analysis. The datasets will be procured from DMC agencies as well as other research agencies. Equipment and software may also be procured for the TA where needed. Procurement of data, equipment, and software will be done in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2013, as amended from time to time). Disbursement will be done in accordance with ADB's Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (2010, as amended from time to time).|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Jiang, Yi|
|Responsible ADB Department||Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Economic Analysis and Operations Support Division|
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue,
Mandaluyong City 1550, Philippines
|Concept Clearance||25 Oct 2013|
|Approval||02 Dec 2013|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||02 Oct 2020|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|02 Dec 2013||-||02 Dec 2013||31 Dec 2015||31 Dec 2019||01 Sep 2020|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|950,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||950,000.00||17 Jun 2022||833,517.67|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
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In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|The Urbanization–Poverty–Inequality Triangle in Asia and the Pacific: Technical Assistance Completion Report||TA Completion Reports||Oct 2020|
|The Urbanization-Poverty-Inequality Triangle in Asia and the Pacific||Technical Assistance Reports||Dec 2013|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Water Tariff Setting and Its Welfare Implications: Evidence from Cities in the People’s Republic of China||Papers and Briefs||May 2019|
|Sustaining Transit Investment in Asia’s Cities: A Beneficiary-Funding and Land Value Capture Perspective||Reports||Apr 2019|
|Analytical Tools for Measuring Poverty Dynamics: An Application Using Panel Data in the Philippines||Papers and Briefs||Mar 2016|
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|The Urbanization-Poverty-Inequality Triangle in Asia and the Pacific||Individual - Consulting||Closed||15 Feb 2019||21 Feb 2019|
|Research Assistant||Individual - Consulting||Closed||04 Jul 2018||10 Jul 2018|
|GIS Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||17 Aug 2017||23 Aug 2017|
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