Myanmar : Support for Post-Primary Education Development
The policy and advisory technical assistance (PATA) directly supports Myanmar's Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR), which is led by the Ministry of Education (MOE)coordinating involvement by relevant government agenciesand support by multiple development partner organizations (DPOs). As the first rigorous and comprehensive assessment of the education sector in 2 decades, the CESR will be fundamentally important in helping the government more precisely pinpoint sector challenges and providing a strengthened evidence base for needed reforms and investments. In particular, the CESR process will culminate in the formulation (by around end of 2014) of a costed National Education Sector Plan (NESP) as unified framework for prioritized and sequenced investments by both the government and DPOs. The CESR process consists of 3 phases, focusing on: (i) rapid assessment (Phase 1), (ii) in-depth analysis (Phase 2), and (iii) NESP formulation (Phase 3).
Spohr, Christopher A.
Southeast Asia Department
Request for information
|Support for Post-Primary Education Development
|Country / Economy
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount
|Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector
Education / Education sector development
|Gender equity theme
The policy and advisory technical assistance (PATA) directly supports Myanmar's Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR), which is led by the Ministry of Education (MOE)coordinating involvement by relevant government agenciesand support by multiple development partner organizations (DPOs). As the first rigorous and comprehensive assessment of the education sector in 2 decades, the CESR will be fundamentally important in helping the government more precisely pinpoint sector challenges and providing a strengthened evidence base for needed reforms and investments. In particular, the CESR process will culminate in the formulation (by around end of 2014) of a costed National Education Sector Plan (NESP) as unified framework for prioritized and sequenced investments by both the government and DPOs. The CESR process consists of 3 phases, focusing on: (i) rapid assessment (Phase 1), (ii) in-depth analysis (Phase 2), and (iii) NESP formulation (Phase 3). The NESP will include (i) a 1-year plan covering FY2015, and (ii) interim planning for education sector investments during FY2016-FY2020 and input into formulation of the national multisector Sixth Five-Year Plan.
More specifically, the PATA directly supports MOE and other agencies in undertaking analysis, policy dialogue, and planning related to the post-primary education (PPE) subsectors consisting of the secondary education subsector (SES), technical and vocational education and training (TVET), and higher education subsector (HES) under the umbrella of the government-led, DPO-supported CESR. In particular, the PATA will provide flexible, needs-tailored support for in-depth analysis and policy dialogue and advice during CESR Phase 2, and formulation of viable PPE elements within the broader CESP to be approved at the end of Phase 3.
Inputs under the PATA TA involve close cooperation with a small number of other DPOs supporting PPE-related elements of the CESR (e.g., GIZ and UNESCO), while support for secondary education curriculum reform is closely dovetailed with JICA support for primary education curriculum reform. More generally, the PATA is closely harmonized with and complement other DPOs' support (largely focused on primary, pre-primary, and nonformal education), and also complements and builds on foundational analysis, capacity development, and other front-end support under ongoing ADB capacity development technical assistance CDTA 8187-MYA (in partnership with Australia).
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
The Government of Myanmar has recently stepped up efforts to strengthen the education sector, recognizing the vital role of an educated population and workforce as a prerequisite for sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. In addition to increased budgeting, this is reflected in the government's critical decision in early 2012 to undertake the CESR, which will culminate in the noted CESP to guide sector investments by the government and DPOs. In recent years, education sector development in Myanmar has been obstructed by a dearth of data (particularly affecting PPE subsectors), and the lack of concrete quantitative targets, hence the CESR will be vitally important in developing evidence-based, prioritized and sequenced sector planning as well as longer-term strategies and reforms.
The education sector has made important progress in recent years, perhaps particularly in primary education (grades 15) where despite persistent gaps and challenges the net enrolment ratio (NER) reached roughly 90% in school year SY2009/2010. At the same time, progress has lagged in PPE levels, and SES, TVET, and HES face particular challenges in key aspects of equitable access, education quality and relevance, and subsector management. As Myanmar undergoes dramatic and accelerating socioeconomic transformations, these subsectors must play a particularly critical role in promoting inclusive growth and poverty reduction, meeting rapidly evolving labor market needs, and rebalancing and equipping the economy to modernize and climb the technological ladder into higher value-added sectors and successfully enter into global markets as well as the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. Development of evidence-based policies, planning, and investments to address such gaps thus represents an urgent priority.
Viable and sequenced education planning implemented
|Description of Outcome
Post-primary education subsector plans and priority investments embedded in new CESP
|Progress Toward Outcome
|The TA was expanded (via $700,000 additional financing from ADB) and extended through July 2017. Following physical completion, it is in the process of final financial accounting, to be followed by post-TA assessment and preparation of a TA Completion Report (TCR). Pending that, the TA is deemed to have successfully delivered its intended outcome. The government formally launched its NESP (renamed from CESP) in February 2017, which lays a roadmap for government and DP investments in the education sector during 2016-21. Along with support from other DPs as well as ADB TAs 8634 and 8197, the TA supported the government's development of several key investments laid out in the NESP, including the rollout of reforms of SES curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, as well as the expansion of TVET competency-based modular short courses. The TA also helped provide the foundations for expanded ADB support via Loan 3472: Equipping Youth for Employment Project (EYE), which will support key NESP strategic components related to SES and TVET.
|Description of Project Outputs
In-depth PPE subsector analyses completed
PPE policy and planning frameworks strengthened
Preliminary feasibility analyses completed for high-priority PPE subsector investments
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
The TA made significant contributions to analysis, policy dialogue, and planning under the CESR process, complementing support under TA 8187 as part of ADB's lead role in supporting post-primary education (secondary, TVET, and higher education) within Myanmar's CESR. For example:
(i) Under Output 1, the TA supported (in some cases jointly with support from other DPs) the CESR Team's preparation of 5 CESR Phase 2 technical annexes, and cross-fertilized with an additional CESR Phase 2 supplementary annex prepared by ADB staff working with the CESR Team.
These 6 technical/supplementary annexes prepared (in some cases in collaboration with other development partners) as part of CESR Phase 2 are posted at http://www.adb.org/projects/47177-001/main#project-documents
(in addition to 6 additional input reports for CESR Phases 1 and 2 supported under TA 8187, posted at https://www.adb.org/projects/46369-001/main?page-1=1#project-documents ).
(ii) Under Output 2, in coordination with support from other DPOs, the TA also supported Myanmar's development of the National Education Strategic Plan (under Phase 3 of the CESR), which is expected to be refined and finalized by the incoming government. The TA extension and increased resources also allows the TA to provide additional policy and planning support based on priorities to be identified by the incoming government. In close coordination with JICA support to primary curriculum reforms, the TA also supported MOE's drafting of the Basic Education Curriculum Framework, and MOE's preparation for lower and upper secondary education reforms, expected to be rolled out as part of the NESP with ADB support (see output 3). As another example, the TA (complementing broader ADB-DFAT support via the Mekong Business Initiative) also supported drafting of the human capital pillar of the government's Private Sector Development Framework and Action Plan (PSDFAP), and subsequently the new Working Committee on Building Myanmar's Human Capital Base established under the PSDFAP, which includes officials from several ministries, UMFCCI, and other private sector entities; and
(iii) Under Output 3, analytical and policy dialogue work under the TA have helped lay the foundations for the Equipping Youth for Employment Project (EYE), which will support the government's implementation of key reforms and NESP programs in the SES and TVET subsectors, including reforms of SES curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, as well as reforms to shift TVET towards demand-driven and competency-based approaches.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
|During Project Design
|Support under the PATA was fully mainstreamed within the government-led, DPO-supported CESR process, under which MOE has acted as overall lead agency, coordinating inputs from other agencies involved in education (particularly TVET and HES). More specifically, the TA directly supported post-primary education elements of the CESR, as part of CESR Phases 2-3. Via maintained dialogue with the government and multiple DPOs since the start of 2012, ADB has been involved from initial conceptualization of the CESR and development of the analytical agenda for the CESR, including participation in working groups to TVET and HES, as well as working within a larger basic education (grade 1-11) group to scope out SES-related analysis and support under the CESR. ADB''s support to CESR Phases 1-2 has involved a collaborative effort between ADB staff and consultants (and those from other DPOs) and CESR Team staff seconded by various ministries. The process engaged a diverse array of DPOs ranging from bilateral and multilateral international agencies to international and national NGOs and stakeholder dialogue will be continued/expanded during CESR Phase 3. Building off the CESR, new sector coordination mechanisms (including the new Education & TVET Sector Coordination Group, formerly JESWG) have been established to support continued strategic dialogue and DP harmonization.
|During Project Implementation
|The TA supported continued stakeholder participation and consultation. This ranged from ADB support to a series of roundtable discussions with key government non-government stakeholders in the PPE subsectors (including the private sector, employer organizations, and other segments of civil society) commenced under CDTA 8187, to senior-level, multi-stakeholder policy forums. In addition to consultations organized by the Ministry of Education under the CESR process, key TA findings were discussed in various forums (e.g., as part of ADB's 24 March 2015 ADO launch, a September 2015 forum for labor unions and CSOs organized by the Solidarity Center, a November 2016 CSO Outreach on education support under ADB's draft country partnership strategy, a July 2017 forum on SES reforms, etc.), as well as participatory consultation meetings linked to development and implementation of the human capital pillar of the government's Private Sector Development Framework during 2016 - 2017. Such dialogue has aimed to promote participation in and validation of analysis of key challenges and priorities, and to build consensus among multiple ministries and other key stakeholders on directions ahead and priority investments under Myanmar's National Education Sector Plan, 2016-21 (launched in February 2017). The TA also contributed to ADB's facilitation of collaboration between MOE, MSWRR, and CSOs to ensure that the future secondary education curriculum is sensitive to gender, ethnic group, disability, and other social dimensions.
[Original] Subject to further review, the TA will support indicatively 45.0 person-months of international and 60.0 person-months of national consultants, who will have expertise in secondary education subsectors (SES), technical and vocational education and training (TVET), and/or higher education subsectors (HES), who will be recruited as individuals and engaged by ADB in accordance with the Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2010, as amended from time to time). Advertisements for initially required consultant positions are expected to be posted via ADB's Consultant Management System (CMS) Consulting Service Recruitment Notice (CSRN) in June 2013, with additional recruitments later in the TA. The TA will also flexibly mobilize short-term resource persons to provide specific expertise, as needed.
[March 2017 Update]: additional inputs expected to total 15 person-months of international and 20 person-months of national consultants were mobilized in February 2017 to augment the TA's support to the Ministry of Education in developing reformed secondary education curriculum. Two additional individual consultancies (for SES and TVET advisors) will be advertised by early March.
|The TA is expected to finance very modest procurement, including resource materials and minor equipment (indicatively three laptop computers and one printer), in a manner consistent with ADB s Procurement Guidelines (2010, as amended from time to time), and other ADB guidelines and procedures.
|Responsible ADB Officer
|Spohr, Christopher A.
|Responsible ADB Department
|Southeast Asia Department
|Responsible ADB Division
|Myanmar Resident Mission (MYRM)
Ministry of Education
|29 Apr 2013
|01 May 2013 to 07 May 2013
|19 Jun 2013
|Last Review Mission
|Last PDS Update
|29 Sep 2017
|19 Jun 2013
|16 Aug 2013
|16 Aug 2013
|31 Jul 2015
|31 Jul 2017
|30 Jan 2018
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization
|17 Jun 2022
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
|Contractor | Address
|Total Contract Amount (US$)
|Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)
|Policy and Advisory
|Technical Assistance 8385
|31 Jan 2017
|Maxwell Stamp Limited (Bangladesh) in association with Synergia - Consulting and Training (Myanmar) | House No. 333, Road No. 113 Gulshan, Dhaka 1212 Bangladesh
|Ministry of Education
None currently available.