The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has requested a policy and advisory technical assistance (TA) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The assistance will support the Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center (LCRC) of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) in conducting a research on intensive and economical land use mode in small and medium-sized cities and small towns. The project impact will be better knowledge and stronger policies adopted for intensive and economical land use in small and medium-sized cities and small towns. The project outcome will be recommendations available for policy and implementation guidelines to improve land use conditions in small and medium-sized cities and small towns.
|Project Name||Research on Intensive and Economical Land Use Mode in Small and Medium-Sized Cities and Small Towns|
|Country||China, People's Republic of
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Knowledge solutions
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Land-based natural resources management
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban policy, institutional and capacity development
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||No gender elements|
|Description||The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has requested a policy and advisory technical assistance (TA) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The assistance will support the Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center (LCRC) of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) in conducting a research on intensive and economical land use mode in small and medium-sized cities and small towns. The project impact will be better knowledge and stronger policies adopted for intensive and economical land use in small and medium-sized cities and small towns. The project outcome will be recommendations available for policy and implementation guidelines to improve land use conditions in small and medium-sized cities and small towns.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Urbanization in the People's Republic of China (PRC) progresses at an unprecedented rate along with a serious problem of urban sprawl. During 2006 -2010, the urban sprawl speed in small and medium-sized cities was twice as fast than during 2001 -2005. Local governments gain revenue from land-use-right transfers. In some developed areas, about half to two-thirds of a city''s fiscal income comes from land transfer, and this percentage is even higher in some inland cities. In addition, lack of effective management and supervision causes serious problems of unreasonable land use structure. Land use intensity in urban built-up areas in the PRC is quite low. The average floor area ratio in cities is only about 0.3. More than 40% of land is used inefficiently, and 5% are idle. Particularly, industrial land use in small and medium-sized cities and small towns is inefficient and lack proper guidance. As a result, industrial land is dispersed and the output per unit of land is low. In recent years, the central government has been taking measures to encourage the efficient use of land. In 2004, the PRC State Council issued Decree No. 28 to strengthen reform and land management, requesting governments to establish a mechanism for intensive and economical land use and benefit sharing. In 2012, MLR issued Document No. 47 to facilitate the establishment of a mechanism on intensive and economical land use. Subsequently, MLR and the National Development and Reform Commission updated the restricted and prohibited inventories of land use and MLR issued Decree No. 53 on measures to manage abandoned land. Despite such efforts, improving land use efficiency is still challenging. MLR issued Order No. 61 in May 2014 on the new Regulation on Intensive and Economical Land Use, which will be effective in September 2014. However, the regulation is too general and lacks practical policy, methods, and implementation guidelines. Thus, a recommendation is urgently needed to provide practical policy and implementation guidelines to promote intensive and economical land use.
Through its national strategies, the PRC is promoting urbanization and balanced urban -rural integration. Land use is one of the fundamental issues that relates to urbanization and urban rural integration, as well as various challenges including household registration, social security for farmers, rural to urban migration, environmental protection, food security, agricultural modernization, local economic growth, local government finance, and industrial transformation and relocation. One of the strategic pillars of the country partnership strategy of the Asian Development Bank, 2011 -2015 for the PRC is inclusive growth to foster balanced and equitable development by promoting integrated rural and urban development by expanding livelihood opportunities for the poor. The country partnership strategy also supports to strengthen protection and sustainable use of land. Land reform is one of the urgent priorities of the PRC and the TA will support improvement and implementation of land policies.
|Impact||Better knowledge and stronger policies adopted for intensive and economical land use in small and medium-sized cities and small towns|
|Description of Outcome||Recommendations available for policy and implementation guidelines to improve land use conditions in small and medium-sized cities and small towns|
|Progress Toward Outcome||The TA outputs were produced during 2015-2016 to achieve the outcome. The TA has produced a report on (i) land use case studies (three international cases, and three cases from PRC); and (ii) learning from international cases, and policy recommendations for three PRC case locations and at the central government level, on implementing efficient and economic use of land. The involvement of other ministries (Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, National Development and Reform Commission, etc.), will be crucial in implementing the recommended policies as land use relates to the urban planning system and development planning.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
A research report on intensive and economical land use mode for small and medium-sized cities and small towns
Policy suggestions for intensive and economical use of land in selected small and medium-sized cities and small towns
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
An inception mission to Beijing, and Yunnan and Guangdong provinces on 19-23 May 2015 visited potential sites for PRC case study cities and towns and conducted a workshop. The mission met with the executing agency, the Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center (LCRC) of the Ministry of Land and Resources and with the consultants to discuss the TA scope and implementation. The TA is considered very timely to tackle emergent issues in the PRC. Proposed case study cities and towns agreed to provide data and information required for the research. Technical outputs from the international consultants were produced based on this workshop and site visits. The three representative cases for the national case study are (i) Huadu District of Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province as a case of a medium-sized city; (ii) Xundian County of Kunming City, Yunnan Province as a case of a small-sized city; and (iii) Humen Town of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province as a case of a town.
A review mission was held from 28-30 October 2015 where PRC case study locations were agreed. Findings from a study tour (conducted in September 2015) to Japan and the Republic of Korea were also shared to LCRC key officials and officers from selected PRC case study city and towns. The TA international consultants prepared and presented international lessons learned from the cases of Germany, Japan, and the United States.
A review mission to Beijing on 26 May 2016 reviewed and discussed the draft PRC case studies with LCRC, the consultants, and representatives from the case study sites.
Reflecting the requests and suggestions made in the workshop, the consultants revised the case studies by conducting further study and field visits and incorporating the lessons learned from the international cases.
A review mission was held in October 2016 which (i) reviewed the consolidated case study report of international and domestic case studies compiled by the national experts; (ii) discussed with LCRC, the consultant team, and representatives from the case study sites on how to apply the lessons and recommendations and translate them into a policy brief; and (iii) updated the TA implementation schedule for the final workshop.
The final workshop was held on 5-6 January 2017 which (i) reviewed the consolidated reports on international and domestic case studies compiled by the consultants, (ii) finalized the draft policy recommendations for three locations in the PRC with officials from relevant provinces, LCRC, and the consultants; and (iii) agreed on activities for knowledge product preparation and a knowledge dissemination event in Q4 2017.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||The ADB project team conducted consultations and agreed with LCRC on the TA project's objective, scope, impact, outcome, outputs, implementation arrangements, costs, financing arrangements, and terms of reference.|
|During Project Implementation||The TA was implemented using a combination of consultation and research with quantitative and qualitative analysis in a phased manner through reports, focus group discussions, and workshops that will be shared with local governments. Drawing on experience and lessons from selected cases, discussions with stakeholders relating to efficient land use were held to exchange opinions to address multidimensional and complicated issues on land use. The TA funded workshops to discuss the case studies and explore ways to adapt lessons from international cases into the PRC setting. Five workshops were held with the participation of relevant stakeholders.|
National consultants include (i) a land use policy specialist and team leader (5 person-months), (ii) an urban planning specialist and deputy team leader (3 person-months), (iii) a land and real estate legal specialist (3 person-months), (iv) a land economics specialist (3 person-months), and (v) a land management specialist (3 person-months). The international consultants comprise three land use specialists for a total of 7 person-months.
A consulting firm has been engaged to provide national expertise (total of 17 person-months) and for overall management and logistical arrangements throughout the TA by working closely with LCRC. The firm was recruited using the consultants'' qualifications selection method, with biodata technical proposal. This method was used because of the highly specialized expertise required. The three international consultants (total of 7 person-months) were engaged as individual consultants. All consultants under the TA were selected based on their academic qualification and relevant work experience in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time). Services to support consultations and workshops will be carried out in accordance with ADB's Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (2010, as amended from time to time).
|Responsible ADB Officer||Maruyama, Hinako|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD|
|Concept Clearance||20 Aug 2014|
|Fact Finding||29 Jul 2014 to 30 Jul 2014|
|Approval||22 Sep 2014|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||25 Sep 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|22 Sep 2014||15 Oct 2014||15 Oct 2014||30 Jun 2016||31 Dec 2017||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|300,000.00||0.00||60,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||360,000.00||22 Sep 2014||252,986.60|
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Research on Intensive and Economical Land Use Mode in Small and Medium-Sized Cities and Small Towns: Technical Assistance Completion Report||TA Completion Reports||Aug 2018|
|Research on Intensive and Economical Land Use Mode in Small and Medium-Sized Cities and Small Towns: Technical Assistance Report||Technical Assistance Reports||Sep 2014|
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