48076-002: Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabilities Project | Asian Development Bank

Mongolia: Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabilities Project

Sovereign (Public) Project | 48076-002 Status: Approved

Often, public support to persons with disabilities (PWDs) focus on providing assistance under the concept of social welfare. However, this project will highlight what PWDs can do to ensure inclusion of PWDs in society, including them in mainstream economic activities, creating opportunities in education and employment, and providing access to the services they need. It will strengthen and institutionalize early identification of disability; improve service delivery and access to the physical environment; improve employment prospects; and contribute to strategic development for PWDs, including social welfare reform, awareness raising, and attitude change.

Project Details

Project Officer
Mamatkulov, Raushanbek East Asia Department Request for information
Country
  • Mongolia
Modality
  • Grant
  • Loan
Sector
  • Health
 
Project Name Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabilities Project
Project Number 48076-002
Country Mongolia
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 9191-MON: Promoting Employment Opportunities for People with Disabilities
Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction US$ 2.00 million
Loan 3605-MON: Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabiilties
concessional ordinary capital resources lending / Asian Development Fund US$ 25.00 million
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Education / Pre-primary and primary - social protection initiatives

Health / Health sector development and reform

Public sector management / Social protection initiatives

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description Often, public support to persons with disabilities (PWDs) focus on providing assistance under the concept of social welfare. However, this project will highlight what PWDs can do to ensure inclusion of PWDs in society, including them in mainstream economic activities, creating opportunities in education and employment, and providing access to the services they need. It will strengthen and institutionalize early identification of disability; improve service delivery and access to the physical environment; improve employment prospects; and contribute to strategic development for PWDs, including social welfare reform, awareness raising, and attitude change.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

The prevalence of disability in Mongolia of about 4% is based on the 2010 census and is likely to be underestimated. Disability assessment is currently based on an outdated, narrow medical approach to determine work ability loss. Early diagnosis and identification of disability in children is underdeveloped, while older people are not recognized as disabled even if they require long-term care. PWDs in Mongolia and their households represent a population subgroup with substantially higher incidence of poverty and lower human development indicators than the rest of the population. For instance, 42% of households with PWDs live in poverty compared with 18% of households without PWDs, 28% of PWDs aged 15 59 years are in the labor force compared with 69% of those without disabilities, and 43% of children with disabilities (CWDs) aged 6 18 years are unable to read compared with only 4% for people without disabilities. PWDs and the families of CWDs spend more on health services than nondisabled people, including for medicine, diagnostic procedures, and travel costs associated with visiting the capital for tests that are not available in aimag (province) health centers. This increased expenditure contributes to greater levels of poverty among PWD households. Parents consider the quality of education services for CWDs as low, and disabled people's organizations (DPOs) report poor access for PWDs to tertiary education. The project's target aimags (Arkhangai, Darkhan-uul, Dornod, Dundgovi, Khovd, and Khuvsgul) have a large proportion of PWDs and a high poverty ratio among PWDs. Based on proxy means test data, the percentage of PWDs in the bottom three deciles of poverty is 55% in the selected aimags and 44% in the other 15 aimags.

PWDs, especially those with intellectual disabilities, typically lack access to education, health care, social protection, and employment, and are marginalized in society. Early diagnostic and intervention services for most CWDs are either unavailable or of poor quality. Poor access to education at all levels means that PWDs are poorly prepared for employment compared with other people. Lack of enforcement of the existing universal design standards and limited investment result in poor physical access to public buildings, including government offices, hospitals, and schools, and to transportation facilities. These are all major impediments and often prevent PWDs from accessing basic municipal and social services or nearby workplaces. PWDs face huge barriers in entering job markets because they lack skills, and companies are not prepared to provide jobs for the disabled. Access to orthopedic equipment and assistive devices is very limited, especially to new technologies and devices based on information and communication technology, reducing the potential for PWDs to compensate for their disabilities and succeed at school or in the workplace. Most people generally do not recognize PWDs as individuals capable of living independently and contributing positively to society. This is a major source of frustration for PWDs, leading to feelings of vulnerability and rejection. The successive barriers encountered by PWDs during their lifetime underline the need for early childhood support that is sustained in school and throughout their professional life to ensure successful inclusion in society.

The Government of Mongolia demonstrates strong commitment to international rights frameworks and development goals on disability. This is especially reflected in its active engagement with the DPO community and the adoption of the new Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in February 2016, which moves the sector paradigm from a health and social welfare model based on a medical understanding of disability to a rights-based model built on a biopsychosocial understanding of disability underpinned by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The new law represents an opportunity to address the poor human development indicators for PWDs. The priority areas for improvement identified by DPOs, the government, and experts are (i) early identification of disability, including prenatal and postnatal screening services, to ensure early intervention to minimize the impact on child development and subsequent education outcomes; (ii) maximum functioning and active economic participation with support from social services, habilitation, and rehabilitation; (iii) inclusive education and employment services; (iv) improved enforcement of legislation on accessibility to the physical environment, transport, and information, and increased availability of assistive devices and technology; and (v) strategic measures such as changing attitudes and mindsets toward PWDs, making the social welfare system more equitable and targeted, using the ICF to assess disability and planning services, and defining disability in monitoring and data frameworks.

DPOs in Ulaanbaatar seem to underrepresent PWDs in rural areas and those with intellectual disabilities. The organizations provide some services in Ulaanbaatar and in some aimags, but compared with DPOs in other countries, they have a limited role in employment promotion. DPOs mainly support segregated forms of employment, such as sheltered employment and self-employment, largely because (i) DPOs and public employment agency staff lack knowledge and skills to effectively support individual pathways to mainstream employment for PWDs, and (ii) the regulatory framework for involving DPOs in providing employment and social services is not well developed.

Strategic fit. The project strongly aligns with the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) Social Protection Strategy and Social Protection Operational Plan, 2014- 2020. It will support renewed emphasis on social protection in the Midterm Review of Strategy 2020 to protect the most vulnerable members of society. In supporting PWDs through social protection and stronger social safety nets to ensure decent living standards, the project is in line with ADB's country partnership strategy for Mongolia, 2017 -2020. The project also supports the implementation of the Mongolia Sustainable Development Vision 2030. ADB is coordinating project inputs with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which is implementing two technical assistance projects on disability in Mongolia, and a memorandum of understanding will be signed before project implementation to ensure complementarity and avoid duplication.

Disability puts women at a disadvantage, and factors such as age and poverty widen the gender gap. The poverty rate for women is typically higher than that for men, and poverty and disability are associated. The disability rate for women, particularly those with severe disability, is higher than for men at any age. Even so, analysis conducted during project preparation has shown that disability among girls and women appears to be underreported, with men being 28% more likely to be reported as disabled than women. Further, while 30% of men with disabilities aged 15 59 years work, this percentage is only 25% for women. Moreover, 80% of people caring for PWDs are women, who often do not receive adequate social protection and support services.

Lessons learned. ADB has a successful record in social protection and welfare in Mongolia, but it has limited experience in disability, which is an issue that cuts across ADB sectors (health and education) and areas such as infrastructure development, social protection, social services and care, and employment. The project represents a learning opportunity for ADB in an area of increasing international importance, especially in relation to (i) the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and (ii) an aging population that results in increased numbers of PWDs (footnote 6). Specific ADB support for PWDs in Mongolia includes a JFPR grant for Expanding Employment Opportunities for Poor Disabled Persons implemented in 2002 -2006, and the Social Security Sector Development Program, which assisted in developing manufacturing capacity for prosthetics and establishing community care centers. ADB's work in health and education in Mongolia, although extensive, has not focused on disability. In 2005, ADB published the Disabled People and Development working paper as an attempt to integrate disability into poverty reduction and development strategies and other sectors. This has not led to operations directed at disability.

The Italian Raoul Follereau Association, an international network of grassroots organizations more commonly known as AIFO, has been focusing on the development of community-based rehabilitation. The People's Republic of China is providing funding for the construction of the National Children's Rehabilitation Center in the Bayangol district of Ulaanbaatar, and the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (MLSP) plans to request further external support to build development centers in the 15 remaining aimags not covered by the project, using the design developed under the proposed project. The State Department of the United States supported the MLSP in drafting the new Law on the Rights of PWDs and a European Commission project is assisting in drafting a national program to implement the law and standards for the implementation of social welfare services.

Impact Equal participation for PWDs in society achieved
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Access to services and employment for PWDs increased
Progress Toward Outcome
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Early identification of CWDs strengthened and institutionalized

Service delivery for PWDs improved

Access to the physical environment improved

Work and employment for PWDs improved

Strategic development to support PWDs implemented

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
Geographical Location Nation-wide, Arhangay Aymag, Darhan-Uul Aymag, Eastern Aymag, Khovd, Khovsgol, Middle Govi
Safeguard Categories
Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects Environmental implications of the project were reviewed, an initial environmental examination was conducted, and an environment management plan (EMP) was developed to address the minor adverse environmental impacts (dust, noise, construction site safety) that may potentially occur during the establishment of six small development and rehabilitation centers in aimags, and one DPO employment resource center in Ulaanbaatar.
Involuntary Resettlement The project will not require temporary or permanent land acquisition.
Indigenous Peoples The project will have no negative impact on indigenous peoples in the project areas.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Extensive consultation has taken place in the project design with a range of stakeholders from the government, DPOs, and PWDs. Attention has been given to ensure participation of PWDs outside Ulaanbaatar and those with small voice through focus group discussions and household interviews.
During Project Implementation

DPO involvement during project implementation is essential and the project design includes DPOs in project oversight, media campaigns, employment services, and monitoring activities.

Participation of civil society organizations concerns primarily DPOs, professional associations, and voluntary networks. More than 10 DPOs will be involved in (i) public communication campaigns, (ii) employment and work support, and (iii) monitoring and implementation of all project activities as part of the project steering committee. Professional associations will be involved in the review of the curricula of social workers and in the creation and support of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) task force. Finally, the engagement of an nongovernment organization (NGO) for volunteers with social marketing skills will support the media campaign as well as the engagement with various national media associations.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services The Borrower is responsible for selecting, engaging, and supervising consultants engaged under the loan funded and grant administered by ADB. All consultants will be recruited according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time). Seven consulting firms will be recruited following quality-and cost-based selection (QCBS) procedure (quality-cost ratio 90:10). International and national individual consultants (excluding PIU staff) will be engaged using individual consultants selection procedure, for 3.5 person-months and 28 person-months inputs, respectively. The terms of reference for all anticipated consulting services are outlined in Section D. All the PIU staff will be hired by the EA/IAs in close consultation and discussion of each candidate with ADB.
Procurement For procurement of goods and works, the PIU will follow the ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2015, as amended from time to time); and undertake procurement in accordance with the project procurement plan. The PIU staff will have adequate experience and training in ADB Procurement Guidelines in order to carry out procurement activities.
Responsible ADB Officer Mamatkulov, Raushanbek
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Labor and Social Protection
[email protected]
Government Building-2
United Nations Street-5
Ulaanbaatar-15160,
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Timetable
Concept Clearance 17 Dec 2014
Fact Finding 13 Jun 2016 to 17 Jun 2016
MRM 24 Feb 2017
Approval 28 Nov 2017
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 04 Dec 2017

Grant 9191-MON

Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 2.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 - 0.00 0.00 %
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 2.00 - 0.00 0.00 %

Loan 3605-MON

Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 25.27 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 25.00 - 0.00 0.00 %
Counterpart 0.27 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 - 0.00 0.00 %

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.

In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

None currently available.

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.


The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.

Tenders

No tenders for this project were found.

Contracts Awarded

No contracts awarded for this project were found