Building on ongoing Asian Development Bank (ADB) technical assistance (TA) support, the proposed Equipping Youth for Employment Project (EYE) -- formerly titled Preparing Youth for the Workplace Sector Development Program -- will provide cohesive support to secondary education subsector (SES) and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) reforms, to ensure these subsectors are mutually aligned and collectively serve Myanmar s evolving labor market and socioeconomic context. [[FOOTNOTE: In partnership with Australia via 2 cofinanced TAs, ADB is the only development partner organization (DPO) currently supporting SES, and is one of a small number of DPOs supporting TVET, with ADB providing support via these TAs as well as a TVET-focused TA financed by the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction.
|Project Name||Equipping Youth for Employment Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Education / Education sector development - Secondary - Secondary - social protection initiatives - Technical and vocational education and training
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Gender equity|
|Description||Building on ongoing Asian Development Bank (ADB) technical assistance (TA) support, the proposed Equipping Youth for Employment Project (EYE) -- formerly titled Preparing Youth for the Workplace Sector Development Program -- will provide cohesive support to secondary education subsector (SES) and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) reforms, to ensure these subsectors are mutually aligned and collectively serve Myanmar s evolving labor market and socioeconomic context. [[FOOTNOTE: In partnership with Australia via 2 cofinanced TAs, ADB is the only development partner organization (DPO) currently supporting SES, and is one of a small number of DPOs supporting TVET, with ADB providing support via these TAs as well as a TVET-focused TA financed by the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction. ]] The Project will combine policy-level and investment-level support for rationalization of SES and TVET and address key interlinked challenges in subsector management, access, and quality and relevance via 3 outputs: (i) policy frameworks and capacities for cohesive, workforce-responsive SES and TVET enhanced; (ii) new SES curriculum delivered and access expanded; and (iii) new TVET programs introduced and access expanded. The Program will provide programmatic support to nationwide reforms, as the main support to SES within the forthcoming National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) for 2016-2021 and closely coordinated with other development partner organization (DPO) support for TVET. The EYE is included in ADB's Myanmar country program for 2016.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
SES (which produces most workforce entrants) and TVET (which suffers from very low access) are largely supply-driven and not responsive to Myanmar s evolving labor force needs. SES and TVET are also not mutually aligned or strategically linked. Such gaps in subsector management are interlinked with gaps in access and quality. Analysis of data from the 2014 Census indicate that just above 80% of youth complete primary education, but less than half (roughly 44%) complete lower secondary education (LSE). Of the roughly 1.1 million new primary school entrants each year, only 10% complete upper secondary education (USE) 11 years later. [[FOOTNOTE: Figures herein draw on ADB-supported analysis household survey and other data as part of Myanmar s Comprehensive Education Sector Review. See http://www.adb.org/projects/47177-001/documents ]] Given that most forms of TVET (like higher education) require USE completion, this leaves a missing million youth without access to many forms of employment, skill training, or higher education. Prospects are particularly bleak for the more than half of all youth (and large majority of those in poor households) unable to complete even LSE. [[FOOTNOTE: Forthcoming reforms will extend the current 11-year system to a KG-12 system, adding kindergarten and USE grade 12.]] Partly as a result of this, TVET access has been very low, with only 1 in 60 youth aged 16-19 enrolled in any form of training (versus 1 in 9 enrolled in higher education), and training virtually nonexistent in rural areas or in construction, mechanical, or industrial skills. Finally, low quality directly undermines access. In SES, outdated, weakly relevant curriculum and rote-based pedagogy (i) undercut learning outcomes, evidenced in the two-thirds failure rate on the matriculation exam at the end of USE; (ii) drive up costs of LSE and particularly USE; [[FOOTNOTE: ADB-supported analysis suggests that USE (not university) poses the highest per-student expenditure burden on households, and private tutoring (driven by rote-based assessment) is the largest component of education costs.]] and (iii) contribute to lack of interest as the lead reason cited for SES dropout. Similarly, perceived low quality and relevance undermine both demand for TVET and trainee employability. Collectively, such challenges leave the majority of workforce entrants poorly educated and un- or poorly skilled, undercut national poverty reduction and inclusive growth objectives, and threaten to trap the economy in a natural resource extraction-based, low value-added model. [[FOOTNOTE: See (i) http://www.dica.gov.mm/sites/dica.gov.mm/files/document-files/psd_framework_final_01_apr_englidh.pdf ; and (ii) ADB. 2014. Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential. Country Diagnostic Study. Manila. Respondents to the Myanmar Business Survey 2014 cited human resources (e.g., weak mastery of foundational knowledge and hard and soft skills like critical thinking, numerical skills, and problem-solving) as the second most serious barrier to business.]]
|Impact||Education and skills base for inclusive growth enhanced|
|Description of Outcome||Secondary education and TVET realigned to evolving labor force needs and equitably expanded|
|Progress Toward Outcome||The Project became legally effective on 19 June 2017 and is now in the start-up phase. Progress towards the outcome (expected to be achieved by project completion at end of 2022) will be monitored during implementation.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Policy frameworks and capacities for cohesive, workforce-responsive SES and TVET enhanced
New SES curriculum delivered and access expanded
New TVET programs introduced and access expanded
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
Per above, the Project became legally effective on 19 June 2017 and is now in the start-up phase. Among other progress, the Ministry of Education has established the EYE Project Management Unit (PMU) and has contracted (in accordance with ADB rules) civil works for output 3 (TVET), the project implementation consultants, and small packages to equip the PMU office. Preparations for several other procurements is underway.
All outputs are in early stages of delivery, and progress towards the outputs will be monitored during implementation. Progress to date includes the following.
Under output 1, initial meetings have been held with relevant ministries (particularly MOE, MOI, and MOLIP), and detailed work planning is underway.
Under output 2, consultants mobilized under EYE have commenced support to MOE's secondary education curriculum development team, complemented by continued support from TA 8915 consultants. MOE targets launching the new grade 6 curriculum (including textbooks and teacher guides) nationwide in June 2019.
Under output 3, civil works to construct TVET workshops, dorms, toilets, etc. is well underway at 14 of the 15 cities (15 of 16 sites, including Aung San THS and Waibargyi sites in Yangon). The final site is now awaiting contracting.
|Geographical Location||Nation-wide, Ayeyawady Region, Bago Region, Kayin State, Magway Region, Mandalay Region, Mon State, Nay Pyi Taw, Sagaing Region, Shan State, Yangon Region|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Environmental Aspects||As confirmed by PPTA analysis, the Project is category "B" for environment in view of minor potential impacts, principally in terms of potential safety and health risks associated with the construction phase of provision of additional classroom blocks at existing school sites.|
|Involuntary Resettlement||As confirmed by PPTA analysis, the Project is category "C" for involuntary resettlement (no involuntary resettlement).|
|Indigenous Peoples||As confirmed by PPTA analysis, the Project is expected to be category "B" for indigenous peoples (typically termed _ethnic groups_ in Myanmar), as the Project is expected to generate substantial positive benefits for all ethnic groups and to promote enhanced equity.|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Project conceptualization and design have drawn on substantial analysis and dialogue with the Ministry of Education (MOE), Ministries of Industry and Labor, Immigration, and Population, other government agencies, development partner organizations (DPOs), and other stakeholders (including the private sector) under the umbrella of Myanmar's Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR), as well as 3 ongoing ADB technical assistance projects. Detailed design work also drew dialogue and consultations with other non-government stakeholders (e.g., CSOs), as well as a series of focus group discussions with students and out-of-school youth, parents, teachers, and other community members in selected townships throughout Myanmar.|
|During Project Implementation||The Program is expected to directly support the implementation of the government's National Education Sector Plan (NESP) for FY2016/17-FY2020/21. It is also expected to develop the capacity of MOE and MOI counterparts (as well as other agencies including MOLIP) at different levels, ranging central to local levels in areas including stakeholder and community engagement, including suporting MOE and MOST in conducting systematic consultation and participation to support awareness of and participation in national reforms, including ensuring inclusion of poor and vulnerable groups. Other examples of expected stakeholder engagement will range from SES curriculum reform processes (e.g., engaging CSOs in the curriculum development process, to ensure that new curriculum and materials are sensitive to gender, ethnic group, and disability issues), engaging employers in identifying priority skill needs and ensuring employability of graduates, to community engagement in school-based management and school improvement planning.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Spohr, Christopher A.|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Myanmar Resident Mission|
Ministry of Education
Building No. (13) Ministry of Education
Nay Pyi Taw Myanmar
|Concept Clearance||19 Jun 2015|
|Fact Finding||11 May 2016 to 26 May 2016|
|MRM||22 Sep 2016|
|Approval||28 Nov 2016|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||27 Mar 2018|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|28 Nov 2016||22 Mar 2017||19 Jun 2017||30 Jun 2023||-||-|
|Financing Plan||Loan Utilization|
|Total (Amount in US$ million)||Date||ADB||Others||Net Percentage|
|Project Cost||105.00||Cumulative Contract Awards|
|ADB||98.49||28 Nov 2016||13.52||0.00||14%|
|Cofinancing||0.00||28 Nov 2016||3.92||0.00||4%|
|Status of Covenants|
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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Equipping Youth for Employment Project: Initial Environmental Examination||Initial Environmental Examination||Oct 2016|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
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