China, People's Republic of : Modeling Urban Low-Carbon Development in Xiangtan
The proposed TA aims to assist the government in promoting energy efficiency and decreased per capita gross domestic product carbon emission in Xiangtan. This will be achieved by assisting the government in (i) creating an inventory of current Xiangtan GHG emission, including all major sectors; (ii) creating an LCD index system for Xiangtan to measure environmentally friendly and LCD; (iii) establishing a GHG monitoring and accounting system; and (iv) creating a Xiangtan LCD strategy and implementation plan (LCD road map for Xiangtan) which could be used by similar small- and medium-sized cities in the PRC.
McIntyre, Andrew J.
East Asia Department
Request for information
China, People's Republic of
- Water and other urban infrastructure and services
|Project Name||Modeling Urban Low-Carbon Development in Xiangtan|
|Country / Economy||China, People's Republic of
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
|Sector / Subsector||
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban policy, institutional and capacity development
|Gender||Some gender elements|
|Description||The proposed TA aims to assist the government in promoting energy efficiency and decreased per capita gross domestic product carbon emission in Xiangtan. This will be achieved by assisting the government in (i) creating an inventory of current Xiangtan GHG emission, including all major sectors; (ii) creating an LCD index system for Xiangtan to measure environmentally friendly and LCD; (iii) establishing a GHG monitoring and accounting system; and (iv) creating a Xiangtan LCD strategy and implementation plan (LCD road map for Xiangtan) which could be used by similar small- and medium-sized cities in the PRC.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Urbanization has been a key driver of the economic development of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the last 35 years. The PRC's urbanization ratio increased from 19.4% in 1978 to 53.7% in 2013, and the urban population rose to nearly 700 million in 2013. The number of cities rose from 193 in 1978 to 658 in 2013, and the number of townships rose from 2,173 to 20,113 in the same period. Urbanization and industrialization have also caused environmental degradation and pollution which limit future options for sustainable urbanization in the PRC. Increasing air pollution and high labor costs in the eastern region of the PRC, coupled with western development initiatives, have led to a shift of manufacturing from large coastal cities to small- and medium-sized cities in the central and western regions. These cities, with an abundance of labor and resources, tend to attract high-energy and pollution-heavy processing industries. While these industries allow for short-term economic growth, they ultimately sacrifice the long-term and environment-friendly development of these small- and medium-sized cities.
Under the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, the Government of the PRC set a goal to build a _two-oriented society,_ defined as building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society. This strategic task was recognized as critical to the long-term planning for the national economy and for social development. To support this, the Central Committee Communist Party of China has put forward a succession of relevant policies since 2007, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, and environmental protection measures in the anticipated Thirteenth Five-Year Plan, 2016 2020.
In support of this goal, the government considers urbanization as an opportunity to expand economic growth while promoting pollution-free and resource-efficient low-carbon urban development (LCD). In 2013, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) completed the policy and advisory technical assistance (TA), _Strengthening Capacity to Address Climate Change for Small- and Medium-Sized City Development,_ which aimed to assist the government's effort to strengthen the capacity of small- and medium-sized cities to address climate change and pursue LCD through knowledge sharing. The TA output effectively alerted the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the PRC Government that low-carbon city development of small- and medium-sized cities will face significant challenges, particularly in the areas of financing, knowledge, human resources, regulation, and infrastructure. The TA also identified national and international best practices best suited for small- and medium-sized cities in the PRC. Meanwhile, NDRC has identified 36 pilot cities for a wide range of LCD tasks such as developing city-wide GHG emission inventories, setting measurable emission-reduction targets, developing low-carbon action plans, and establishing performance tracking mechanisms.
In 2014, the government requested an additional policy and advisory TA from ADB to build on previous findings, in order to apply the lessons learned in Xiangtan, Hunan Province. With a population of approximately 1 million, Xiangtan is a medium-sized city within the Changsha Zhuzhou Xiangtan (CZT) city cluster. Established in 2007, the CZT city cluster is one of the only two-city cluster pilots aimed at exploring sustainable economic and social development in the PRC. Xiangtan was selected due to its size, location, historical importance, as well as the existing political commitment to environmental improvement despite heavy industrialization. While Xiangtan has made many efforts to advance local green and LCD initiatives, it is not one of the 36 NDRC pilot LDC cities. The Xiangtan municipal government (XMG) has very broad targets related to pollution reduction, with interest in lowering air pollution and carbon emission. Currently, the government does not know the overall carbon emissions for Xiangtan, and has requested guidance in measuring the existing emissions, and supporting the creation of a goal and workplan to ensure that international best practices are used to create a replicable model for small- and medium-sized cities in the PRC. While LCD initiatives affect multiple sectors, XMG has prioritized LCD planning for industrial development as the most urgent need for Xiangtan. The proposed TA is a timely response to the government's request for ADB assistance to identify suitable policies and mechanisms to promote LCD in small- and medium-sized cities in the PRC. The TA could also build on the ongoing PRC initiative, particularly development of the GHG accounting and monitoring framework. Additionally, the TA aims to identify new or innovative approaches to LCD projects in Xiangtan which could lead to potential ADB lending.
|Impact||Carbon emission per capita GDP in Xiangtan decreased. Energy consumption per unit of GDP in Xiangtan decreased.|
|Description of Outcome||Xiangtan model for LCD recognized as an example for other small- and medium-sized cities in the PRC.|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. Inventory of current Xiangtan GHG emissions across all major urban sectors completed
2. LCD index system for Xiangtan to measure LCD and environmentally friendly development created
3. GHG monitoring and accounting system for Xiangtan established
4. Xiangtan LCD strategy and implementation plan created
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||An Asian Development Bank mission visited Xiangtan, Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China , on 1-3 February 2015. The mission held discussions with the Hunan Finance Department, Xiangtan Municipal Government, Xiangtan Municipal Office for Building a Two-oriented Society, and other stakeholders.|
|During Project Implementation||There will be continued consultations with stakholders during project implementation.|
|Consulting Services||It is expected that 24 person-months (7 international and 17 national) of consulting services will be required (see the table below for a list of required project expertise). The consulting firm will be selected by (i) inviting simplified technical proposals, and (ii) using the quality- and cost-based selection method, with a quality cost ratio of 90:10. The consultants' terms of reference are in Appendix 3. The TA requires highly qualified international and national experts in the fields of LCD, energy management, and climate change mitigation. These experts will be required to demonstrate strong experience in and familiarity with climate change mitigation and policies for cities in the context of the PRC and Asia. The consultants will be engaged according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time). Proceeds of the TA will be disbursed in accordance with the Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (2010, as amended from time to time).|
|Procurement||No implementation arrangements for procurement.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||McIntyre, Andrew J.|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD|
Xiangtan Municipal Government
TAN Wenshang, Executive Vice Mayor
The People's Bldg, Furong Road
|Concept Clearance||24 Jun 2015|
|Fact Finding||02 Feb 2015 to 04 Feb 2015|
|Approval||26 Aug 2015|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||29 Sep 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|26 Aug 2015||17 Sep 2015||17 Sep 2015||31 Jan 2017||31 Jul 2017||01 Dec 2017|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|630,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||630,000.00||17 Jun 2022||586,709.13|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Modeling Urban Low-Carbon Development in Xiangtan: Technical Assistance Completion Report||TA Completion Reports||Aug 2018|
|Modeling Urban Low-Carbon Development in Xiangtan: Technical Assistance Report||Technical Assistance Reports||Aug 2015|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
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None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
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|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor | Address||Executing Agency||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|Policy and Advisory||Technical Assistance 8948||27 Jun 2016||Ramboll Danmark A/S (Denmark) in association with Ramboll Environ Australia Pty Ltd | Hannemanns Alle 53 Copenhagen S DK-2300, Denmark||Xiangtan Municipal Government||224,000.00||—|
|Policy and Advisory||Technical Assistance 8948||17 Mar 2016||New East Advisors Ltd. (Canada) in Association with China Environmental United Certification Center (China, People's Republic of) | 121 Tenth Street, Unit 1602 New Westminster, BC V3M 3X7 Canada||Xiangtan Municipal Government||384,400.00||—|
None currently available.