Mongolia: Education Sector Development

Sovereign Project | 49020-001

The TA aims to contribute to the development of effective policy measures to address equity of access to quality education at the pre-primary, primary, and secondary levels by conducting research on school factors that influence access to quality educational resources and learning opportunities, while strengthening the capacity of the Institute of Education, and district and aimag education departments in providing support for schools, and by preparing policy recommendations and an action plan in consultation with policy makers and administrators, teachers, civil society organizations, researchers, development partners, and mass media.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Maruyama, Asako
    East Asia Department
    Request for information
  • Country/Economy
    Mongolia
  • Modality
    • Technical Assistance
  • Sector
    • Education
Project Name Education Sector Development
Project Number 49020-001
Country / Economy Mongolia
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 8931-MON: Education Sector Development
Japan Fund for Prosperous and Resilient Asia and the Pacific US$ 1.00 million
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Education / Education sector development

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description The TA aims to contribute to the development of effective policy measures to address equity of access to quality education at the pre-primary, primary, and secondary levels by conducting research on school factors that influence access to quality educational resources and learning opportunities, while strengthening the capacity of the Institute of Education, and district and aimag education departments in providing support for schools, and by preparing policy recommendations and an action plan in consultation with policy makers and administrators, teachers, civil society organizations, researchers, development partners, and mass media.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

In 2012, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MECS) launched the education sector quality reform which features the introduction of new curricula and new teaching-learning methodology and technology at the pre-primary, primary and secondary levels. At that time, the transition from 11-year to 12-year education system was expected to complete in two years, with the promotion of the first cohort of students to 12th grade in school year (SY) 2014/15. Although the transition aligned the Mongolian education system with the international standards, the curricula remained overloaded with theoretical contents and teachers continued using outdated teaching-learning methodology and technology. MECS intended, thus, through the reform, to upgrade the curricula and teaching-learning methodology and technology to the international standards and to better meet diverse student needs.

The new core' curricula organized by skill or competence that students must acquire by the end of pre-primary, primary, junior, and senior secondary education through different subjects to be taught in an integrated manner was first developed for the primary level and piloted in SY 2013/14 in 40 laboratory schools, the majority of which were originally selected under the Mongolia-Cambridge Education Initiative launched in 2009 with a view to aligning Mongolia's education with the international standards. Since SY 2014/15 the core curricula have been implemented nationwide at the primary level. Equally, the core curricula for junior secondary and pre-primary education were developed and have been piloted since SY 2014/15. This will be followed by the nationwide implementation of the core curricula for junior secondary and pre-primary education in SY 2015/16 and the piloting of the core curricula for senior secondary education in SY 2016/17. In addition to the core curricula, the reform has introduced new elements to the Mongolian education system, including new teaching-learning methodology and technology, new textbooks and standards for school environments, new guidelines for school management, new methods of teacher continuous professional development, and new assessment system.

This education sector quality reform has been led by MECS, together with the reform management teams consisted of staff of the Institute of Education, Teacher Development Institute, Educational Evaluation Center, and Mongolian State University of Education, and the reform implementation team comprising experienced teachers mostly based in aimags. This education sector quality reform has been led by MECS, together with the reform management teams consisted of staff of the Institute of Education, Teacher Development Institute, Educational Evaluation Center, and Mongolian State University of Education, and the reform implementation team comprising experienced teachers mostly based in aimags. The reform has been implemented by the reform implementation team, working closely with 40 laboratory schools, to pilot the core curricula, demonstrate new teaching-learning methodology and technology, advise school management, and organize knowledge and experience sharing workshops for teachers at laboratory and non-laboratory schools. While major efforts have been devoted to developing, piloting and implementing the core curricula, equity of access to quality education has drawn less attention. Although the implementation of the core curricula places a greater demand for teachers' skills in assessing student needs, preparing lessons in a team of teachers, delivering classes and assessing student learning, teachers' understanding of the core curricula and skills greatly vary, which poses challenge to equal access to quality education for all students. Moreover, disparities in instructional supports for students and teachers (e.g., availability of textbooks and other teaching-learning materials and aids, instructional leadership, parental involvement, co-operative learning, monitoring at classroom level, etc.) and school environments that would influence the implementation of the core curricula, thus access to quality education, have been given little attention. Furthermore, whereas Mongolia has attained the net enrollment ratios of 97.0% (96.6% for girls and 97.5% for boys) for the primary level and 92.0% (91.9% for girls and 91.3% for boys) for the secondary level in SY 2014/15, some disadvantaged and marginalized students (e.g., the poor, ethnic minorities, children of herder families and migrants, out-of-school children, disabled children) still struggle to access quality education and have been left behind under the shadow of the reform.

In 2014, 12 years after the recentralization of education budgets to the national level, the Parliament approved the decentralization of recurrent budget responsibility to district and aimag levels. As a consequence, district and aimag governments are expected to play a greater role not only in allocating budgets to schools but also in making sure that the core curricula are effectively implemented and all students, regardless of their socio-economic backgrounds, gain equal access to quality education. However, due in part to lack of data and knowledge, especially on factors that would affect the implementation of the core curricula and access to quality education for disadvantaged and marginalized students, proper policy measures have not been taken to ensure equity of access to quality education.

Impact

Equity of access to quality education improved. (MECS' education sector reform policy framework, 2012- 2016)*

*MECS. 2012. Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Reform Policy Framework (2012 -2016).

Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Enhanced management and implementation of the MECS's education sector reform policy framework, 2012 2016, with an emphasis on measures to improve equity of access to quality education.
Progress Toward Outcome The implementation of the MECSS's education sector reform policy framework, 2012-2016, was evaluated and updated policy frameworks are being prepared based on findings and recommendations of the TA.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

2. Knowledge and measures to enhance equity of access to quality education developed

1. Capacity to identify school factors that affect access to quality educational resources and learning opportunities developed

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues) A research team comprising the consulting firm and staff/researchers from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports (MECSS), Institute of Education, Institute of Teachers' Professional Development, Educational Evaluation Center, Mongolian National University of Education, and Ulaanbaatar Education Department, as well as experienced teachers in aimags, was formed to carry out the TA activities, including research on school factors that affect equity of access to quality education (i. organization of teaching-learning environment within schools; ii. curriculum implementation and teaching-learning process inside and outside classroom; and iii. distribution of financial, human and physical resources across schools) through classroom observation, teacher and school principal questionnaires, and interviews with teachers. Based on the research and through consultations with relevant stakeholders, the following six policy notes were developed: i) curriculum standards; ii) student learning assessment; iii) evaluation systems for schools, principals, and teachers; iv) teaching and learning materials; v) continuing professional development for school principals and teachers; vi) improved planning efficiency using the education sector information system. Additional consultants have been engaged to prepare policy reform concept papers for pre-primary education, primary and secondary education, higher education and amendments to the package of education laws, building on the TA outputs.
Geographical Location Nation-wide
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, National Evaluation Center, the reform implementation team of the Institute of Education, and other relevant stakeholders were consulted during project design.
During Project Implementation Teachers, national, district and aimag administrators and policy makers, researchers, development partners, civil society organizations, and mass media will participate in workshops organized during project implementation.
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

The TA has engaged a consulting firm (international, 14 person-months; national, 34 person-months) to provide expertise in education economics, school management, education psychology, and didactics. The consulting firm was selected using quality- and cost-based selection with a quality- cost ratio of 90:10 and a simplified technical proposal. The following additional consultants were assessed as necessary to prepare draft education law amendments and a concept paper on education policy reform, and conduct socioeconomic impact and risk assessment of the education law amendments and education policy reform: (i) a pre-primary education specialist (national, 1 person-month); (ii) a higher education specialist (national, 1 person-month); (iii) a water and sanitation engineer (national, 1 person-month); (iv) five legal specialists (national, 1 person-month each); (v) a social development specialist (national, 1 person-month); and (vi) an economist (national, 1 person-month). The additional consultants are being engaged through the TA consulting firm.

To ensure coordination between ADB, MECSS, the consulting firm, and other institutions involved in TA activities at the national, regional, and aimag levels, a national project coordinator and six regional project coordinators were engaged as individual consultants for 43 person-months.

An international individual policy analyst was engaged to finalize draft knowledge products for publication (practical reference documents to address disparities in education infrastructure, especially water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in schools, to be finalized by April 2018).

Additionally, individual consulting services (international, 4 person-months; national, 2 person-months) have been engaged to support the finalization of education policy notes and knowledge pieces for publication. To reduce administrative burden and improve economy, efficiency, and value for money, the consultants have been engaged on output-based (lump-sum) contracts.

All consultants were engaged in accordance with the Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time).

Responsible ADB Officer Maruyama, Asako
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Education and Science
Government Building-III, Suite # 514, Baga toiruu-44, Sukhbaatar district
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Timetable
Concept Clearance 14 Apr 2015
Fact Finding 16 Apr 2015 to 22 Apr 2015
MRM -
Approval 16 Jul 2015
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 16 Mar 2018

TA 8931-MON

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
16 Jul 2015 30 Oct 2015 30 Oct 2015 31 Jul 2017 30 Apr 2018 31 Jul 2018
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
0.00 1,000,000.00 100,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1,100,000.00 17 Jun 2022 893,011.59

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

None currently available.


Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.


Related Publications

None currently available.


The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.

Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
Education Sector Development - Education Policy Analyst 2 Individual - Consulting Closed 04 Feb 2018 06 Feb 2018
Education Sector Development - Education Policy Analyst 3 Individual - Consulting Closed 27 Jan 2018 02 Feb 2018
Education Sector Development - Education Policy Analyst 1 Individual - Consulting Closed 27 Jan 2018 02 Feb 2018

Contracts Awarded

Contract Title Approval Number Contract Date Contractor | Address Executing Agency Total Contract Amount (US$) Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)
Capacity Development Technical Assistance 8931 08 Dec 2015 Maxwell Stamp Limited (Bangladesh) in association with Mec LLC (Mongolia) | House No. 333, Road No. 113 Gulshan, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh Ministry of Education, Culture and Science 680,500.00

Procurement Plan

None currently available.