Indonesia : Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program (Subprogram 1)

Sovereign Project | 49043-001

The Asian Development Bank is working with Indonesia to help stimulate Indonesia’s energy sector by support the government’s reform agenda. The project is supporting the government’s efforts to lower subsidies, adopt cost-recovery-based tariffs and boost the performance of state-owned energy companies.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Tharakan, Pradeep J.
    Southeast Asia Department
    Request for information
  • Country/Economy
  • Modality
  • Sector
    • Energy
Project Name Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program (Subprogram 1)
Project Number 49043-001
Country / Economy Indonesia
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Loan 3303-INO: Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program (Subprogram 1)
Ordinary capital resources US$ 400.00 million
Loan 8293-INO: Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program (Subprogram 1)
ASEAN Infrastructure Fund US$ 100.00 million
Loan: Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program (Subprogram 1)
World Bank US$ 500.00 million
KfW Bankengruppe US$ 200.00 million
Agence Francaise de Developpement US$ 150.00 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Private sector development
Sector / Subsector

Energy / Energy sector development and institutional reform

Gender No gender elements
Description Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program design. SIEP is closely aligned with the government's National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN), 2015 2019, the goals of which include (i) expanding electricity access to all Indonesians and increasing per capita consumption from 843 kilowatt-hours to 1,200 kilowatt-hours per year as key goals; (ii) bolstering domestic energy security through expanded production of gas, improved security for downstream oil and oil products, and increased utilization of renewable energy; and (iii) scaling up energy efficiency. The program is also designed to support PLN via the company's Electricity Power Supply Business Plan, 2015 2024. Realizing these goals will require a sustained and multi-year effort. SIEP will be ADB's first policy-based operation in Indonesia that is fully focused on the energy sector. The proposed program takes a chronological approach over the 5-year RPJMN period with three subprograms.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Indonesia under a new president and executive team has set an annual economic growth rate target of 8% by 2019. Achieving this target will depend to a large extent on the government's ability to revive a severely underperforming energy sector. Having transitioned from a net energy exporter to a significant importer of energy, the country has until recently been unable to put in place an appropriate policy framework to adapt to this situation. In late 2014 to early 2015, the government removed subsidies on gasoline and increased the price of diesel by nearly 30%. In the same period, it also removed power tariff subsidies and put in place automatic price adjustment for all but a few consumer categories. During 2015 2019, the government seeks to enact a series of subsector reforms aiming to (i) expand energy production through greater private sector investment and more effective public sector investment, (ii) bolster the sustainability of the energy sector through increased reliance on domestic gas and renewable energy and increased energy efficiency, and (iii) expand energy access to all Indonesians.

The proposed Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program (SIEP) is aligned with the priorities of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) country partnership strategy, 2015 2019 for Indonesia and the draft energy sector assessment, strategy, and road map, both of which are being finalized. The program is also in line with ADB's midterm review of Strategy 2020, which emphasizes the need for inclusive economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy-based engagements in middle-income countries. By focusing on a series of subsector reforms, the Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program addresses the unfinished agenda of translating the high-level sector regulatory reform that was implemented under ADB's Infrastructure Reform Sector Development Program during 2006 2010 into sustained subsector actions. The program is included in the draft country operations business plan 2015 2019.

Inadequate investment in the energy sector. Widespread subsidies and the inability to recover costs have led to underinvestment by the public sector. Low tariffs and market prices combined with challenges in permitting, licensing, land acquisition, environmental approvals, and the perceived financial risk posed by monopolistic and subsidized public sector off-takers has resulted in inadequate private sector investment. For example, low domestic prices, aging fields, and an uncertain regulatory framework that discourages private sector investment have together constrained investment in upstream and downstream gas markets. In the power subsector, relatively low investment has been compounded by delays in completing the few large and small fossil-fired, geothermal, and hydro power projects initiated in recent years.

Constraints on scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. Renewable energy deployment is lagging, despite an abundance of various forms of renewable energy and national targets to increase renewables in the energy mix from just 5% of the country's primary energy mix to 25% by 2025. The Ministry for Energy and Mineral Resources has tried to attract private sector investment to the renewable energy subsector by issuing feed-in tariffs for small-scale hydro power, biomass, and waste-to-energy systems, and ceiling prices for solar. However, tariff levels were not always appropriate and project developers still face difficult negotiations and delays due to permitting issues. Similarly, the government set economy-wide energy efficiency targets and published the National Energy Conservation Master Plan in 2005 but is yet to enact guidelines which, for example, promote energy efficient equipment or appliance standards and labeling in the household and commercial sectors. These circumstances, combined with low economy-wide energy costs, have resulted in energy efficiency measures being considered financially unviable.

Impediments to achieving 100% modern energy access. Indonesia's national electrification ratio of 84% in 2014 is low relative to its neighbors in Southeast Asia. In many small power markets and parts of eastern Indonesia, supply is limited to a few hours a day. The high cost of delivering fossil fuels to small islands and remote areas combined with low power loads, limited household ability to pay, lack of interconnected grids that can support larger generating units, and a constrained policy environment have made State Electricity Company (PLN) reluctant to add new consumers. Nevertheless, the rich renewable energy potential of these regions could support a range of grid-connected, mini grid, and household systems. The government's electrification effort overall lacks a comprehensive regulatory framework that incorporates the private sector, a national program, an institutional framework, and the necessary budgetary resources.

ADB's engagement in the energy sector. The Sustainable and Inclusive Energy Program will build on ADB's extensive recent engagement in the sector that is focused on three areas: (i) knowledge and awareness, (ii) policy and mainstreaming best practices, and (iii) financing energy infrastructure. ADB has supported the development of (i) new tariff regimes for geothermal, solar photovoltaic rooftop, and wind systems; (ii) regulations for energy service companies; and (iii) a planning and regulatory framework for expanding electricity access. Other knowledge-related activities include the country's first carbon capture and storage pilot and an analysis of the prospects for strengthening transmission grids in Kalimantan and interconnecting Sumatra with Malaysia. ADB is also involved in financing large geothermal power plants and power transmission lines between Java and Bali and between Sarawak (Malaysia) and Kalimantan, and is supporting energy-savings-based loans through a state-owned bank.


A more sustainable and inclusive energy sector in Indonesia.

Impacts the program is aligned with:

(i) Strengthen the availability of primary energy for domestic use through increased production of gas (RPJMN, 2015 2019).

(ii) Increase the extent of domestic energy infrastructure for electricity and gas provision (RPJMN, 2015 2019).

(iii) Increase access to modern forms of energy among underserved sections of the population (RPJMN, 2015 2019).

Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Supply from sustainable and more accessible energy options increased
Progress Toward Outcome
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Sector governance improved

2. Markets for private participation enabled

3. Access to clean energy increased

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
Geographical Location Nation-wide
Safeguard Categories
Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation
Responsible ADB Officer Tharakan, Pradeep J.
Responsible ADB Department Southeast Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Energy Division, SERD
Executing Agencies
Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs also known as Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Perekonomian (KKBP)
[email protected]
2nd Floor, Jl Lapangan
Banteng Timur 2-4
Jakarta Pusat 10710
Concept Clearance 29 Jun 2015
Fact Finding 27 May 2015 to 27 Jul 2015
MRM 14 Aug 2015
Approval 30 Sep 2015
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 03 Jul 2015

Loan 3303-INO

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
30 Sep 2015 16 Oct 2015 13 Nov 2015 31 Dec 2015 - 31 Dec 2015
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 900.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 400.00 17 Jun 2022 400.00 0.00 100%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 500.00 17 Jun 2022 400.00 0.00 100%

Loan 8293-INO

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
30 Sep 2015 16 Oct 2015 13 Nov 2015 31 Dec 2015 - 31 Dec 2015
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 100.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 17 Jun 2022 0.00 100.00 100%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 100.00 17 Jun 2022 0.00 100.00 100%

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