Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education during Economic Difficulties

Sovereign (Public) Project | 50091-001

Peaking in 2011, the growth of Mongolia''s economy has rapidly decelerated due to declining foreign direct investment and falling commodity prices. This slowed growth has caused serious economic difficulties, including large revenue shortfalls and cuts in government investment, which are expected to continue beyond 2018 and further require the government to reduce inefficiency in public spending. Their negative impacts have already started being felt in the education sector, such as an increase of junior secondary graduates left out of school due to the suspension of monthly stipends for students in technical and vocational education and training. The tightening education budget, compounded by the growth of school age population and high costs of operating kindergartens and schools, will aggravate difficulties with sustaining access to and quality of education, especially for disadvantaged children and schools. Against this background, the government requested Asian Development Bank''s (ADB) support.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Schelzig, Karin Mara
    East Asia Department
    Request for information
  • Country
    Mongolia
  • Modality
    • Technical Assistance
  • Sector
    • Education
Project Name Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education during Economic Difficulties
Project Number 50091-001
Country Mongolia
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 9216-MON: Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education during Economic Difficulties
Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction US$ 800,000.00
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Education / Education sector development

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description

Peaking in 2011, the growth of Mongolia''s economy has rapidly decelerated due to declining foreign direct investment and falling commodity prices. This slowed growth has caused serious economic difficulties, including large revenue shortfalls and cuts in government investment, which are expected to continue beyond 2018 and further require the government to reduce inefficiency in public spending. Their negative impacts have already started being felt in the education sector, such as an increase of junior secondary graduates left out of school due to the suspension of monthly stipends for students in technical and vocational education and training. The tightening education budget, compounded by the growth of school age population and high costs of operating kindergartens and schools, will aggravate difficulties with sustaining access to and quality of education, especially for disadvantaged children and schools. Against this background, the government requested Asian Development Bank''s (ADB) support.

Cuts in capital expenditures add considerable pressures to existing kindergartens and schools which have already been experiencing overcrowded classes and multiple shifts. As a result, some children will not be able to enroll in kindergartens and schools. Continuous migration to Ulaanbaatar and some aimag centers is making classes increasingly scarce and overcrowded and run in two or three shifts, which exposes children to unnecessary risks. Moreover, most children with minor and severe disabilities have been left out of school outside Ulaanbaatar, because schools lack adequate facilities to accept them.

The reduction in the education budget further affects the provision of essential inputs to education and lowers the quality of student learning. Since the government barely affords to maintain salaries and operational costs of kindergartens and schools, the supply of textbooks, teaching-learning materials, tools, and equipment will be kept to the minimum. At the same time, students in the majority of _non-laboratory_ schools will be more disadvantaged than those in _laboratory_ schools as _non-laboratory_ schools have already been suffering from insufficient teaching-learning materials, textbooks, library materials, and science laboratory materials and supplies. Lack of educational resources will further limit access to a full range of elective courses for senior secondary students in some of those resource-poor schools. On the other hand, out-of-school children and youths (more likely to be boys from poor households, herder families, and/or ethnic minority groups, and those with disabilities), whose number is on the increase especially during the economic difficulties, can only have limited access to quality alternative learning opportunities, which will further diminish their chances of success in life.

Lack of resources for teacher training and continuous professional development will also affect the quality of student learning as well as access to education. The child-centered methodology introduced with the latest core curricula remains yet to be mastered by many teachers at the pre-primary, primary, and junior secondary levels. Teachers at lifelong learning centers have rarely received training, which largely accounts for low quality alternative education programs for out-of-school children and youths. Moreover, the lack of resources for teacher training constrains the government's efforts to expand access to kindergartens which are currently understaffed, and to schools for children with disabilities where teachers and school staff trained in special needs education are unavailable.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy Since 1991 ADB's operations supported (i) rebuilding basic education infrastructure and strengthening the foundation for quality improvements during the transition period from a centrally planned to market-based economy; (ii) shifting a 10- to 12-year education system in line with international standards; and (iii) maintaining access to pre-primary education during the financial crisis and improving early childhood education, health, and nutrition. The project will be built on these experiences as well as ADB's ongoing operations in the education sector. It is in line with one of the two strategic pillars of ADB's interim country partnership strategy (2014 -2016) for Mongolia , inclusive social development , and its sector focus on basic and secondary education.
Impact
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome
Progress Toward Outcome
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs
Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
Geographical Location Nation-wide
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services A total of 20 person-months of international and 44 person-months of national consulting services will be required. Individual consultants will be engaged (6.5 person-months of international and 20 person-months of national consulting services) to conduct thematic assessments and related due diligence (environment and ethnic minorities), while 13.5 person-months of international and 24 person-months of national consulting services will be engaged through a firm (quality- and cost-based selection [90:10]; simplified technical proposal) to develop the project design, conduct due diligence of the other aspects, and prepare the RRP and PAM. ADB will ensure coordination of the outputs developed by the individual consultants and the firm. All consultants will be engaged in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time). Output-based contracts and lump sum payments will be used under the TA.
Responsible ADB Officer Schelzig, Karin Mara
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Education and Science
Government Building-III, Suite # 514, Baga toiruu-44, Sukhbaatar district
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Timetable
Concept Clearance 14 Sep 2016
Fact Finding -
MRM -
Approval 03 Nov 2016
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 24 Sep 2019

TA 9216-MON

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
03 Nov 2016 30 Nov 2016 30 Nov 2016 30 Sep 2018 30 Sep 2019 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
0.00 800,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 800,000.00 03 Nov 2016 723,708.86

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

None currently available.

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

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Related Publications

None currently available.


The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

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Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
3594-MON: Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education During Economic Difficulties Project (CW-18) Invitation for Bids Closed 11 Nov 2020 11 Dec 2020
3594-MON: Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education During Economic Difficulties Project (CW-16) Invitation for Bids Closed 28 Oct 2020 26 Nov 2020
3594-MON: Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education During Economic Difficulties Project (CW-18) Invitation for Bids Closed 28 Oct 2020 26 Nov 2020
National Special Needs Education Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed 30 Oct 2018 05 Nov 2018
Special Needs Education Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed 30 Oct 2018 05 Nov 2018
National Survey Firm on Children with Disabilities Firm - Consulting Closed 11 Oct 2018 25 Oct 2018

Contracts Awarded

Contract Title Approval Number Contract Date Contractor Contractor Address Executing Agency Contract Description Total Contract Amount (US$) Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)
Project Preparatory Technical Assistance 9216 10 Feb 2017 AARC Limited (Irish Republic) 41 Hughes Road East, Walkinstown Walkins In 12, Ireland, Leinster Dublin 12 Irela [email protected]/[email protected] Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports 449000

Procurement Plan

None currently available.