The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has requested support to strengthen the policy environment to improve the social integration of migrants through evidence-based research. The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will support the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) to assess the well-being and the social integration of migrants through (i) analyzing the current situation of migrants and their families, (ii) examining international best practice, (iii) developing an evaluation index to measure social and physical integration, and (iv) providing evidence-based policy recommendations to improve the physical and psychosocial integration of migrant populations in urban areas.
|Project Name||Research to Support the Social Integration of Migrants|
|Country||China, People's Republic of
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
|Sector / Subsector||
Health / Health insurance and subsidized health programs
Public sector management / Social protection initiatives
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has requested support to strengthen the policy environment to improve the social integration of migrants through evidence-based research. The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will support the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) to assess the well-being and the social integration of migrants through (i) analyzing the current situation of migrants and their families, (ii) examining international best practice, (iii) developing an evaluation index to measure social and physical integration, and (iv) providing evidence-based policy recommendations to improve the physical and psychosocial integration of migrant populations in urban areas.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Economic development in the PRC has led to rapid urbanization and industrialization, which has been accompanied by massive internal migration and social transformation. While the period from the late 1950s to the late 1970s brought strict migration control through the hukou system, gradual economic reforms and reduced migration controls in the early 1980s led to increased mobility. The majority of internal migrants are aged 25- 49 years and are moving from rural to urban areas in search of employment opportunities created by market reforms and labor demand. The PRC urbanization rate increased from 19.4% in 1980 to 52.6% in 2012, with an estimated 200 million rural migrants working in the largest cities. However, even with the relaxation of the hukou system, the PRC has not completely reduced migration restrictions. Urban hukou continues to be withheld from most rural migrants who, as a result, are not afforded the same jobs and subsidized services as urban residents. Consequently, in urban areas, there has developed a type of invisible hierarchy among laborers that has led to rural migrants often being underpaid and marginalized in the lower ranks of urban society, both economically and socially. This has led to two groups of migrants: (i) permanent migrants, who have officially changed their residence through a hukou change; and (ii) temporary migrants, who are also referred to as the _floating population_ since their movement is not associated with a hukou change.
Internal migration has brought a range of issues facing migrant populations and a new set of social and economic challenges. As rural residents move to cities in search of employment, their social status suffers. Resulting from this are social challenges that have led to social inequity, marginalization, and disenfranchisement of migrant populations. Studies show that migrants often report lower levels of average subjective well-being than urban and rural residents. The inflexibility of the hukou has also led to differences in access to social services and discrimination based on hukou residency. The Thirteenth Five-Year Plan calls for action to register hukou-less citizens and to provide them with basic social services to improve their integration in all facets of society.
The migration experience is deeply affected by gender. In the PRC, studies have shown that there is an increasing gender wage gap in urban areas, largely attributable to a more challenging environment for women to find and secure employment. Subjective overall well-being is also significantly affected by gender, as is access to decent work. Migrant women workers are also more likely to have grievances such as unpaid wages, inadequate pay increases, more forced overtime, and factory layoffs.9 The gender differentials in the migrant experience are less understood and warrant more attention.
The TA will help NHFPC develop a knowledge base to support the integration of migrant populations by understanding their current gender needs and level of well-being through the development of an evaluation index that is gender-disaggregated. The TA will use evidence from the evaluation index and international best practice from other countries' experiences integrating rural internal migrants into urban areas to inform policy recommendations that are gender-specific. This will support the development of a knowledge and research base on the overall well-being and needs of the growing migrant populations in the PRC.
|Impact||Social status and integration of the migrant populations improved|
|Description of Outcome||Policy base for the social integration of migrants strengthened|
|Progress Toward Outcome||All TA consultants have been engaged and an inception workshop was conducted.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
International and national experience on social integration of migrant population reviewed and compiled
Evaluation index on social and physical integration of migrants developed
Policy recommendations on integration of migrants developed
Knowledge development and dissemination supported
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||Further to the minor change in scope to include additional activities on long-term care, the January 2020 review mission discussed (i) detailed outputs for the new consultants; and (ii) timeline for the domestic study tour, midterm workshop, international study tour, and final workshop. The mission also clarified on the integration of long-term care in hospitals and the National Health Commission's role to link families to community-level health centers, while the home care system is still being developed.|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Discussions to finalize the TA scope, outcome, outputs, activities, consulting requirements, costs, and implementation arrangements were held with relevant stakeholders during TA preparation.|
|During Project Implementation||Relevant stakeholders from other government departments and civil society will be consulted in the preparation of indicators to be considered for inclusion in the evaluation index and in preparation of policy recommendations.|
|Consulting Services||ADB will engage the individual consultants in accordance with ADB's Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and the associated project administration instructions and technical assistance staff instructions. ADB will select an international consultant and three national consultants based on their academic qualifications and relevant work experience, for total consulting inputs of 34 person-months (4 person-months international and 30 person-months national).|
|Procurement||All TA-financed goods will be procured in accordance with ADB''s Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and the associated project administration instructions and TA staff instructions.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Nigam, Jayati|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD|
Ministry of Health
Project Management, Foreign Loan Office
People's Republic of China National Health Commission
No. 14, Zhichun Road,
Haidian District, Beijing 100191
|Concept Clearance||24 Oct 2017|
|Approval||01 Dec 2017|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||10 Mar 2020|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|01 Dec 2017||28 Dec 2017||28 Dec 2017||30 Nov 2019||31 Oct 2021||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|400,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||400,000.00||01 Dec 2017||43,103.32|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Research to Support the Social Integration of Migrants: Technical Assistance Report||Technical Assistance Reports||Dec 2017|
|通过研究支持流动人口的社会融合 : 项目数据表||Translated PDS||Dec 2017|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
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|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|Long-Term Care Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||13 Nov 2019||19 Nov 2019|
|Elderly care and Social Protection System Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||29 Oct 2019||04 Nov 2019|
|Long-Term Care Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||28 Sep 2019||09 Oct 2019|
|Medical Services Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||05 Sep 2019||18 Sep 2019|
|Specialist on Migration||Individual - Consulting||Closed||23 Feb 2018||04 Mar 2018|
|Senior Statistician||Individual - Consulting||Closed||06 Feb 2018||18 Feb 2018|
|Senior Specialist on Social Integration of Migrant Populations||Individual - Consulting||Closed||06 Feb 2018||18 Feb 2018|
|Senior Public Health Demographer||Individual - Consulting||Closed||06 Feb 2018||18 Feb 2018|
No contracts awarded for this project were found
None currently available.