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China, People's Republic of: Research to Support the Social Integration of Migrants

Sovereign (Public) Project | 51030-001 Status: Active

The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has requested support to strengthen the policy environment to improve the social integration of migrants through evidence-based research. The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will support the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) to assess the well-being and the social integration of migrants through (i) analyzing the current situation of migrants and their families, (ii) examining international best practice, (iii) developing an evaluation index to measure social and physical integration, and (iv) providing evidence-based policy recommendations to improve the physical and psychosocial integration of migrant populations in urban areas.

Project Details

Project Officer
Nigam, Jayati East Asia Department Request for information
Country
  • China, People's Republic of
Sector
  • Public sector management
 
Project Name Research to Support the Social Integration of Migrants
Project Number 51030-001
Country China, People's Republic of
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 9435-PRC: Research to Support the Social Integration of Migrants
Technical Assistance Special Fund US$ 400,000.00
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Knowledge solutions
Sector / Subsector

Health / Health insurance and subsidized health programs

Public sector management / Social protection initiatives

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description The Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has requested support to strengthen the policy environment to improve the social integration of migrants through evidence-based research. The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will support the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) to assess the well-being and the social integration of migrants through (i) analyzing the current situation of migrants and their families, (ii) examining international best practice, (iii) developing an evaluation index to measure social and physical integration, and (iv) providing evidence-based policy recommendations to improve the physical and psychosocial integration of migrant populations in urban areas.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Economic development in the PRC has led to rapid urbanization and industrialization, which has been accompanied by massive internal migration and social transformation. While the period from the late 1950s to the late 1970s brought strict migration control through the hukou system, gradual economic reforms and reduced migration controls in the early 1980s led to increased mobility. The majority of internal migrants are aged 25- 49 years and are moving from rural to urban areas in search of employment opportunities created by market reforms and labor demand. The PRC urbanization rate increased from 19.4% in 1980 to 52.6% in 2012, with an estimated 200 million rural migrants working in the largest cities. However, even with the relaxation of the hukou system, the PRC has not completely reduced migration restrictions. Urban hukou continues to be withheld from most rural migrants who, as a result, are not afforded the same jobs and subsidized services as urban residents. Consequently, in urban areas, there has developed a type of invisible hierarchy among laborers that has led to rural migrants often being underpaid and marginalized in the lower ranks of urban society, both economically and socially. This has led to two groups of migrants: (i) permanent migrants, who have officially changed their residence through a hukou change; and (ii) temporary migrants, who are also referred to as the _floating population_ since their movement is not associated with a hukou change.

Internal migration has brought a range of issues facing migrant populations and a new set of social and economic challenges. As rural residents move to cities in search of employment, their social status suffers. Resulting from this are social challenges that have led to social inequity, marginalization, and disenfranchisement of migrant populations. Studies show that migrants often report lower levels of average subjective well-being than urban and rural residents. The inflexibility of the hukou has also led to differences in access to social services and discrimination based on hukou residency. The Thirteenth Five-Year Plan calls for action to register hukou-less citizens and to provide them with basic social services to improve their integration in all facets of society.

The migration experience is deeply affected by gender. In the PRC, studies have shown that there is an increasing gender wage gap in urban areas, largely attributable to a more challenging environment for women to find and secure employment. Subjective overall well-being is also significantly affected by gender, as is access to decent work. Migrant women workers are also more likely to have grievances such as unpaid wages, inadequate pay increases, more forced overtime, and factory layoffs.9 The gender differentials in the migrant experience are less understood and warrant more attention.

The TA will help NHFPC develop a knowledge base to support the integration of migrant populations by understanding their current gender needs and level of well-being through the development of an evaluation index that is gender-disaggregated. The TA will use evidence from the evaluation index and international best practice from other countries' experiences integrating rural internal migrants into urban areas to inform policy recommendations that are gender-specific. This will support the development of a knowledge and research base on the overall well-being and needs of the growing migrant populations in the PRC.

Impact Social status and integration of the migrant populations improved
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Policy base for the social integration of migrants strengthened
Progress Toward Outcome All TA consultants have been engaged and an inception workshop was conducted.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

International and national experience on social integration of migrant population reviewed and compiled

Evaluation index on social and physical integration of migrants developed

Policy recommendations on integration of migrants developed

Knowledge development and dissemination supported

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues) Further to the minor change in scope to include additional activities on long-term care, the January 2020 review mission discussed (i) detailed outputs for the new consultants; and (ii) timeline for the domestic study tour, midterm workshop, international study tour, and final workshop. The mission also clarified on the integration of long-term care in hospitals and the National Health Commission's role to link families to community-level health centers, while the home care system is still being developed.
Geographical Location Nation-wide
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Discussions to finalize the TA scope, outcome, outputs, activities, consulting requirements, costs, and implementation arrangements were held with relevant stakeholders during TA preparation.
During Project Implementation Relevant stakeholders from other government departments and civil society will be consulted in the preparation of indicators to be considered for inclusion in the evaluation index and in preparation of policy recommendations.
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services ADB will engage the individual consultants in accordance with ADB's Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and the associated project administration instructions and technical assistance staff instructions. ADB will select an international consultant and three national consultants based on their academic qualifications and relevant work experience, for total consulting inputs of 34 person-months (4 person-months international and 30 person-months national).
Procurement All TA-financed goods will be procured in accordance with ADB''s Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and the associated project administration instructions and TA staff instructions.
Responsible ADB Officer Nigam, Jayati
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Health
Project Management, Foreign Loan Office
Beijing
People's Republic of China
National Health Commission
No. 14, Zhichun Road,
Haidian District, Beijing 100191
Timetable
Concept Clearance 24 Oct 2017
Fact Finding -
MRM -
Approval 01 Dec 2017
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 10 Mar 2020

TA 9435-PRC

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
01 Dec 2017 28 Dec 2017 28 Dec 2017 30 Nov 2019 31 Oct 2021 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
400,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 400,000.00 01 Dec 2017 43,103.32

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

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None currently available.

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.


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Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
Long-Term Care Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed 13 Nov 2019 19 Nov 2019
Elderly care and Social Protection System Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed 29 Oct 2019 04 Nov 2019
Long-Term Care Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed 28 Sep 2019 09 Oct 2019
Medical Services Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed 05 Sep 2019 18 Sep 2019
Specialist on Migration Individual - Consulting Closed 23 Feb 2018 04 Mar 2018
Senior Statistician Individual - Consulting Closed 06 Feb 2018 18 Feb 2018
Senior Specialist on Social Integration of Migrant Populations Individual - Consulting Closed 06 Feb 2018 18 Feb 2018
Senior Public Health Demographer Individual - Consulting Closed 06 Feb 2018 18 Feb 2018

Contracts Awarded

No contracts awarded for this project were found

Procurement Plan

None currently available.