The project will assist the government to (i) update the SWM legal framework by developing specific regulatory directives; (ii) build institutional capacity in and improve the sustainability of the Republican Association of Specialized Enterprises for Sanitary Cleaning and toza hududs; (iii) develop and mainstream environmental education, awareness, and advocacy; (iv) strengthen toza hudud asset bases and improve collection services through the provision of vehicles, equipment, and physical infrastructure; and (v) improve SCEEP's environmental testing capabilities.
|Project Name||Sustainable Solid-Waste Management Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Loan
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban policy, institutional and capacity development - Urban solid waste management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The project will assist the government to (i) update the SWM legal framework by developing specific regulatory directives; (ii) build institutional capacity in and improve the sustainability of the Republican Association of Specialized Enterprises for Sanitary Cleaning and toza hududs; (iii) develop and mainstream environmental education, awareness, and advocacy; (iv) strengthen toza hudud asset bases and improve collection services through the provision of vehicles, equipment, and physical infrastructure; and (v) improve SCEEP's environmental testing capabilities.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
National context. Uzbekistan is one of the most dynamic economies in Central Asia, achieving a consistent annual growth rate of 4% 8% during 2005 2018. Since independence in 1991, a gradual transition to a market-based economy has characterized growth in Uzbekistan. Since 2016, the Government of Uzbekistan has intensified structural transformations, with a focus on increasing industrialization and economic diversification, attracting foreign direct investment, and balancing urban and rural development. Strategic investments in infrastructure, including SWM, are therefore an essential part of the government's economic growth strategy.
Sector performance and issues. The Ministry of Communal Services was responsible for the collection, transport, and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) until its dissolution in 2001. Since then, the responsibility for SWM provision has been transferred to departments of municipal governments (hokimiyats) that were responsible for landscaping and territorial improvements, including in rural areas. However, these entities suffered from severe performance issues and accountability, cost recovery, low tariff and capacity deficiencies, resulting in widespread systemic collapse of the nation's SWM system. By 2014, only 20% of MSW was even collected across the country, with collection largely restricted to in and around Tashkent, the nation's capital. MSW is generally disposed of in open dump sites, with virtually no environmental protection measures. There is limited recycling, and public awareness is low. As it is estimated that Uzbekistan generated more than 4 million tons of MSW in 2014, and this is expected to grow to 6.6 million tons by 2035, cumulatively generating more than 100 million tons, significant investments are needed in the SWM system to meet the growing demands.
Sector reforms. Since 2014, the government has responded directly to these challenges by implementing widespread sector reforms, including fostering sector dialogue, reforming policy, enacting legislation, reorganizing and strengthening sector institutions, investing in physical infrastructure, and promoting private sector intervention. Initially, reforms focused on enacting regulations to enhance environmental standards and compliance and improving SWM service provision. The government established 157 district sanitary cleaning units to provide services in rural areas, procured more than 1,400 vehicles and equipment units, and constructed 14,000 MSW community collection points. Private sector participation also increased, both by outsourcing waste collection services in 41 of the nation's 83 cities and towns, and subsequently by establishing public private partnerships (PPPs) for SWM services in nine large city and urban center clusters'.
Since 2017, government has accelerated further sector reforms, including the transitioning of nationwide responsibility from the hokimiyats to the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Ecology and Environmental Protection (SCEEP). In parallel, the government also created Toza hududs (state unitary enterprises) in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and each of the nation's 12 provinces to improve provincial (urban and rural) SWM services in areas not served by the private sector, and established the Republican Association of Specialized Enterprises for Sanitary Cleaning to promote, coordinate, and monitor toza hudud institutional development and capacity building at the national level. Sector monitoring has also improved. As a result of these reforms, by March of 2019, MSW collection coverage has reportedly improved nationwide from less than 20% to about 48% (15.7 million inhabitants), and about 5,000 jobs have been created.
National strategy for solid-waste management. Assisted by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the government also formulated a national strategy for SWM in April 2019 (footnote 5). The strategy's overarching objective is to integrate all SWM activities to (i) minimize public health and environmental impacts; (ii) create effective, reliable, and socially acceptable SWM systems; (iii) maximize the reduction, reuse, and recycling of waste; and (iv) promote new technologies and financing mechanism. The strategy includes a detailed action plan with 36 actions to be completed in a phased approach between 2019 and 2028. The actions aim to (i) update the legislative framework; (ii) strengthen the asset and technical base; (iii) improve organizational capacity; (iv) introduce waste segregation and promote recycling; (v) mainstream SWM education, awareness, and advocacy; (vi) update tariffs and improve cost recovery; and (vii) strengthen environmental monitoring and compliance.
Priority needs. Key areas for support are (i) developing the regulatory framework, (ii) making operational and improving the Republican Association of Specialized Enterprises for Sanitary Cleaning and toza hududs, (iii) enhancing environmental monitoring and compliance, and (iv) filling investment gaps for basic SWM collection vehicles and equipment to expand service coverage (currently at 48%).
ADB and development partner support. ADB has been actively assisting the government to rehabilitate and expand the Tashkent city SWM system, and to formulate the national SWM strategy. Similarly, the Agence Fran aise de D veloppement is implementing an SWM project in Samarkand city, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is preparing an SWM project to establish sanitary landfills in Karakalpakstan and Horezm. Close coordination is ongoing with the development partners under the guidance of the national SWM strategy. The government has commenced improvement of the MSW disposal systems through upgrading of existing dump sites. Waste-to-energy proposals are being explored to minimize the waste to be disposed of.
Project alignment and lessons learned. The project is consistent with the ADB country partnership strategy, 2019 2023 for Uzbekistan, and aligns with ADB's Strategy 2030 operational priorities of strengthening governance and institutional capacity, addressing remaining poverty, accelerating progress in gender equality, enhancing environmental sustainability, and creating livable cities. It is included in ADB's country operations business plan, 2020 2022 for Uzbekistan. The project prioritizes asset operation and maintenance (O&M), performance-based operations, and cost recovery to improve sustainability. Lessons incorporated in the project design include (i) an inclusive development approach through transparent mechanisms that enable stakeholders to participate and contribute meaningfully as users, enablers, and providers; (ii) streamlined procurement management and additional procurement support to reduce project implementation delays; (iii) quality standards for civil works structures; and (iv) progressively transforming the toza hududs to asset managers, enabling and encouraging private sector and civil society for asset operation and service delivery.
|Impact||Environment, health, and living conditions improved.|
|Outcome||Reliable and sustainable SWM services improved and expanded in small urban centers, and peri-urban and rural areas nationwide.|
SWM subsector regulatory framework enhanced
Republican Association of Specialized Enterprises for Sanitary Cleaning and toza hudud capacity strengthened
Environmental monitoring capabilities of SCEEP improved
SWM collection and interim disposal services in small urban centers and peri-urban and rural areas improved nationwide
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Hu, Ruoyu|
|Responsible ADB Department||Central and West Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban Development and Water Division, CWRD|
State Committee for Ecology and Environmental Protection (formerly State Committee for Nature Protection)
5, Mustakillik street, Tashkent
|Concept Clearance||13 Jun 2019|
|Fact Finding||02 Sep 2019 to 16 Sep 2019|
|MRM||29 Oct 2019|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||20 Jun 2019|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Sustainable Solid Waste Management Project: Initial Poverty and Social Analysis||Initial Poverty and Social Analysis||Jun 2019|
|Sustainable Solid Waste Management Project: Concept Paper||Concept Papers||Jun 2019|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Sustainable Solid Waste Management Project: Social Due Diligence Report||Safeguards Due Diligence Reports||Sep 2019|
|Sustainable Solid Waste Management Project: Initial Environmental Examination||Initial Environmental Examination||Sep 2019|
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
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