The proposed knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will support the development of an education sector master plan (ESMP) in Mongolia through capacity development, research and development, and policy advice to improve planning and management of the education system. The Government of Mongolia has requested the TA from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to develop a long-term education sector plan which defines a clear roadmap towards the goals set forth in the Mongolia's Sustainable Development Vision 2030 (the Vision 2030). ADB provided technical assistance for the development of the first ESMP, 2006 -2015 and its update, 2009 -2015, and has been one of the major development partners in the education sector in Mongolia since the late 1990s. During the mission conducted in June 2017, ADB and the government reached agreement on the objectives, scope, implementation arrangements, costs, and consulting service requirements.
|Project Name||Supporting the Development of an Education Sector Master Plan|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Education / Education sector development
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Some gender elements|
|Description||The proposed knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will support the development of an education sector master plan (ESMP) in Mongolia through capacity development, research and development, and policy advice to improve planning and management of the education system. The Government of Mongolia has requested the TA from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to develop a long-term education sector plan which defines a clear roadmap towards the goals set forth in the Mongolia's Sustainable Development Vision 2030 (the Vision 2030). ADB provided technical assistance for the development of the first ESMP, 2006 -2015 and its update, 2009 -2015, and has been one of the major development partners in the education sector in Mongolia since the late 1990s. During the mission conducted in June 2017, ADB and the government reached agreement on the objectives, scope, implementation arrangements, costs, and consulting service requirements. The TA is included in ADB's country operations business plan, 2017-2019 for Mongolia.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Mongolia's education sector underwent a decade of reforms (2004 -2015) associated with the restructuring of the education system from a 10-year (4+4+2) into a 12-year (5+4+3) system in line with international standards. During this reform period, the first ESMP, developed jointly by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports (MECSS), development partners, and other stakeholders, guided and coordinated their interventions in the sector. There was also an institutionalized mechanism led by MECSS - Education Donors'' Consultative Mechanism (EDCM) - to review progress in ESMP implementation and discuss issues related to the education sector with development partners. The ESMP and EDCM helped reduce overlaps and ensure synergies between different interventions supported by development partners, increased predictability and sustainability in policy directions, and enhanced accountability.
Notwithstanding, the EDCM ceased to function in the early 2010s due to lack of institutional leadership and the first ESMP expired in 2015. Since then, there has been no education sector plan developed based on solid assessments and broad consultations with development partners, and no mechanism for education stakeholders to gather, jointly review, and discuss progress and issues in the education sector. Underlying is the fundamental issue weak capacity and systems to plan and manage the education sector based on detailed studies and assessments and to make education policies and reforms more credible, accountable, and sustainable. This issue further involves inadequate staffing, and frequent management and staff turnover at MECSS and associated institutions.
As Mongolia faces severe economic difficulties, negative effects of the lack of long-term planning for the education sector have been amplified. Although the kindergarten-aged population has been growing by 10%- 25% annually since 2009, and school-aged population, by 8%, timely investments were not made to meet the growing demand for education. As a result, the enrollment capacity of kindergartens and schools has now been overstretched, resulting in large classes with more than 30 students (occasionally, 40- 50 students) at schools and kindergartens, and schools operating in two and three shifts in Ulaanbaatar and some aimag centers. Unless long-term planning and forward-looking investments are made, progress in the net enrollment rates at pre-primary, primary, and junior secondary levels may be reversed, as kindergarten-aged population is further projected to grow until 2019, and school-aged population, until 2025. The lack of long-term planning also led to difficulties with the introduction of elective courses at senior secondary level in the school year 2016/17, especially at small schools with only a handful of students in senior secondary level (grades 10 -12). A new loan is planned in the country operations business plan, 2017- 2019 for Mongolia to mitigate these negative effects and support forward looking investments.
Sluggish economic growth has also accentuated the importance of skills and human resource development. As youth unemployment rate rises, poor employability of senior secondary and higher education graduates has increasingly become an issue. Likewise, as the current economic difficulties have highlighted the need for investments in science, technology, and innovation to diversify the economy, strengthening research and development in higher education and developing science and technology human resources have become a priority. Addressing these issues requires a concerted effort in the long-run.
The Vision 2030, approved by the parliament in 2016, sets out broad directions and goals for the education sector until 2030 in line with the Sustainable Development Goal 4. However, there is at present no detailed plan which identifies concrete actions in a rational sequence to attain the goals of the Vision 2030, supported by a credible and comprehensive framework for expenditure. Moreover, due to lack of an evidence-based, long-term education sector plan, operations of development partners are at present uncoordinated. In this context, the joint development of a new ESMP by MECSS and its associated institutions, development partners, and other stakeholders can fill the gap, while opening up new possibilities for adopting a sector-wide programmatic approach to education sector development in Mongolia.
|Impact||Access to, quality and relevance of education improved|
|Description of Outcome||Education system planning and management strengthened|
|Progress Toward Outcome||Progress towards the outcome will be reviewed in 2021.|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Management and coordination mechanisms for ESMP development established
In-depth education sector studies and reviews of international experience and lessons completed
ESMP and expenditure framework developed
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||
The Ministry of Education and Science (MES), (formerly the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports [MECSS] prior to 7 July 2020) established the development partners consultative mechanism (DPCM) and organized the first DPCM meeting on 27 February 2018. During the meeting, the TA objective and activities and the management and coordination mechanisms and process of developing an education sector master plan were presented. The consulting firm to support the project implementation unit of MECSS was mobilized on 27 April 2018. A review mission was fielded in August 2018 and again in December 2018, which reviewed implementation progress noting that (i) a UNESCO-ADB-IEEP-UNICEF training workshop on education policy for MECSS staff was held in September 2018; (ii) core technical and sub-technical teams had been organized in October 2018; (iii) and meetings on preschool, higher education, and general school (primary and secondary education) to discuss report formats were held in November 2018.
The inception report was approved in September 2018, and the interim report was approved in February 2019. The first part of the interim report comprises discussions on the mechanisms to plan, manage, and coordinate the process of ESMP development under the leadership of MECSS and the TA team and describes fundamental activities for preparing the national education survey, which is the second phase of the ESMP development. The second part of the interim report presented the main outputs of the second phase of the ESMP development focusing on the results of the in-depth study of the national education survey and analysis. The draft final report was approved in March 2020.
In 2018- 2019, MECSS established a core technical team which coordinates sub-technical teams and their inputs for in-depth studies and reviews, and public consultations. Combining outputs of individual consultants and a consulting firm, MECSS conducted a sector assessment, institutional assessment, national survey and its validation, and identification of priority policy actions to develop the ESMP. Following the categorization of plans specified in the National Development Law, the government requested ADB to change the name of the plan from master plan to medium-term development plan (ESMP to ESMTDP). The development of the ESMTDP has been arranged in cooperation with other development partners.
Major stakeholder consultations took place from November 2019 and civil society organizations actively participated in the process of ESMTDP development.
During TA implementation, MES expressed its interest in preparing a grant application to support the education sector from the GPE, which is a multi-donor fund. One of the conditions for countries to apply for this grant is if the country has a good quality budgeted sector master plan endorsed by the government and development partners. Before finalization of the ESMTDP, the GPE Secretariat sent an independent appraisal mission to evaluate the quality of the master plan. Given current travel restrictions, the online appraisal mission took place with participation of MES representatives and development partners. The mission assessed the plan which met the international standard and recommended strengthening gender aspects and implementation arrangements for improvement and finalization.
The original completion date of 31 October 2019 was extended five times to 30 April 2020, 31 July 2020, 31 October 2020, 28 February 2021, and 30 June 2021. Major reasons were (i) the TA aligns with the new national long-term development policy, Mongolia Vision 2050 (approved by the Parliament on 13 May 2020) which has replaced the Mongolia Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030 (the TA was originally intended to develop the output in line with SDG 2030); and (ii) the approval procedure and timing of the ESMTDP unexpectedly changed four times (in March, April, June, and July 2020). The ESMTDP was presented and passed at the newly established Cabinet on 23 September 2020, and was approved on 9 October 2020.
The TA initially planned to support MES to organize a national launching event presenting ESMTDP to the public in June 2020. However, the change of the national approval process and timing did not allow organizing this activity in a timely manner, because the approval of the ESMTDP was planned before the national election. The feasibility of MES organizing this event under a new administration in Q3 2020 was uncertain. Therefore, MES and the team agreed to prepare a knowledge product from the TA, which summarizes key recommendations from the ESMTDP (TA output). The knowledge product is expected to be a highly useful resource for new government officials (MES, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labor and Social Protection); stakeholders including academia; and civil society organizations for ESMTDP implementation. To help develop this knowledge product, _"Emerging Challenges in Mongolia''s Education Sector in 2020"_, a manuscript editor and resource persons were recruited.
In addition to the national legislative election in June 2020, delays in government actions and TA implementation in 2020 are due to MES's urgent response to COVID-19 such as development and implementation of online classes for K-12. MES requested ADB to use the TA savings for a short-term consultancy to support them in ensuring alignment of education sector strategies and programs under (i) the newly approved Government Action Plan 2020 2024, (ii) the 5 development directions, and (iii) the ESMTDP, as a follow-up action. On 23 October 2020, the team attended the Mongolia Local Education Donor Group co-chaired by the Japan Embassy. At the meeting, MES requested ADB to use the TA savings to organize a series of workshops to ensure implementation of the ESMTDP.
Since the TA extension on 27 October 2020, no progress was made in conducting the workshops as Mongolia went under a strict COVID-19-related lockdown on 12 November 2020. Given the impossibility of conducting physical workshops under the current circumstances, MES requested ADB for a 4-month TA extension until 30 June 2021 to develop the previously scheduled workshops for online delivery, taking into account delays because of the extended lockdowns as well as changes in the Ministry's staffing. MES also requested to use the TA savings to prepare its 4-year strategic plan based on the approved ESMTDP and relevant strategic and annual plans of the provincial educational and cultural departments as a new activity out of the original scope.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||Major development partners and stakeholders in the education sector were consulted on the scope, outputs, and activities of the TA.|
|During Project Implementation||The TA will support the establishment of mechanisms to plan, manage, and coordinate the process of ESMP development, including the development partners consultative mechanism, and various consultation workshops.|
|Consulting Services||ADB will engage a consulting firm (international, 4 person-months; national, 20 person-months) to provide expertise in planning and management of ESMP development throughout the three phases, while serving as a project management unit. The consulting firm will be selected using the quality- and cost-based selection method with a quality cost ratio of 90:10, and simplified technical proposal. ADB will also engage individual consultants (4 international specialists, 10 person-months; 4 national specialists, 22 person-months) in phases II and III as part of the technical sub-teams to provide expertise on secondary education, higher education, and other areas identified under output 1. Output-based, lump-sum contracts with a provision for fixed out-of-pocket expenditures will be considered for the consulting firm and individual consultants. ADB will engage consulting firms and individual consultants in accordance with ADB Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and the associated project administration instructions and TA staff instructions.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Tadevosyan, Gohar|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD|
Ministry of Education and Science
Government Building-III, Suite # 514, Baga toiruu-44, Sukhbaatar district
|Concept Clearance||28 Jul 2017|
|Fact Finding||18 Jun 2017 to 23 Jun 2017|
|Approval||15 Sep 2017|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||29 Mar 2021|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|15 Sep 2017||20 Oct 2017||20 Oct 2017||31 Oct 2019||30 Jun 2021||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|0.00||600,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||600,000.00||15 Sep 2017||491,576.14|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Боловсролын салбарын мастер төлөвлөгөөг боловсруулахад дэмжлэг үзүүлэх : Төслийн МэдээллийнТайлан||Translated PDS||Sep 2017|
|Supporting the Development of an Education Sector Master Plan: Technical Assistance Report||Technical Assistance Reports||Sep 2017|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|Supporting the Development of an Education Sector Master Plan - Consulting Firm||Firm - Consulting||Closed||08 Jan 2018||06 Feb 2018|
|Education sector specialist/team leader||Individual - Consulting||Closed||13 Jul 2019||19 Jul 2019|
|Higher education specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||22 Aug 2019||28 Aug 2019|
|School education sector specialist (pre-primary, primary, and secondary)||Individual - Consulting||Closed||22 Aug 2019||28 Aug 2019|
|Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||22 Aug 2019||28 Aug 2019|
|Higher education and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||22 Aug 2019||28 Aug 2019|
|Education finance specialist||Individual - Consulting||Closed||07 Sep 2019||13 Sep 2019|
|Education finance researcher||Individual - Consulting||Closed||07 Nov 2019||09 Nov 2019|
|Information technology service provider||Individual - Consulting||Closed||04 Mar 2021||17 Mar 2021|
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor||Contractor Address||Executing Agency||Contract Description||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|Capacity Development||Technical Assistance 9376||27 Apr 2018||Inno-Change International Consultants, Inc.(PHILIPPINES) in association with E-GEN CONSULTANTS, LTD.(BANGLADESH)||UG7 Palm Towers, Tower B, 7706 St.Paul R Makati, Metro Manila 1203, Philippines||Ministry of Education,Culture,Science_& Sports||Consulting Services||291,000.00||—|
None currently available.