The project will be a stand-alone investment project. The project cost is tentatively estimated at $82.0 million with ADB financing $75.0 million from concessional ordinary capital resources loan (COL) and $7.0 million counterpart financing by the government. Climate change adaptation is estimated to cost $15.0 million. ADB will finance 100% of adaptation cost. Impact of the project will be inclusive economic growth through agriculture and irrigation aligned with National Strategic Development Plan and Rectangular Strategy on Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency, Phase III, 2014 to 2018. Outcome will be: water and agriculture productivity in the project areas enhanced. The projects will deliver two outputs to achieve the desired outcome and impact including (i) Efficiency and climate resilience of irrigation systems enhanced; and (ii) Water resource management improved.
|Project Name||Irrigated Agriculture Improvement Project|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Irrigation
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The project will be a stand-alone investment project. The project cost is tentatively estimated at $82.0 million with ADB financing $75.0 million from concessional ordinary capital resources loan (COL) and $7.0 million counterpart financing by the government. Climate change adaptation is estimated to cost $15.0 million. ADB will finance 100% of adaptation cost. Impact of the project will be inclusive economic growth through agriculture and irrigation aligned with National Strategic Development Plan and Rectangular Strategy on Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency, Phase III, 2014 to 2018. Outcome will be: water and agriculture productivity in the project areas enhanced. The projects will deliver two outputs to achieve the desired outcome and impact including (i) Efficiency and climate resilience of irrigation systems enhanced; and (ii) Water resource management improved.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Agriculture accounts for 29.0% of gross domestic product and employs 72.3% of the country's work force, or about five million people. Farming in Cambodia is mostly subsistence-level, rain-fed, and devoted to paddy rice production. With Cambodia being self-sufficient in rice and becoming a rice exporter, there is great potential for crop diversification. Domestic fruits and vegetables production accounts for about 30% of Cambodia's consumption, and their cultivation is increasing to meet domestic demand. Production of cassava, sugarcane, and maize, for example, have grown more than 20% per year, but still there is huge gap between demand and production. Fruits and vegetables are the most profitable crops to produce in Cambodia.
Agriculture sector, in Cambodia, is far below its productive capacity and generates low income mainly because of lack of water availability during dry season that restricts crop diversification and cropping intensity. Nearly one-quarter of the provinces have food deficits due to low agricultural productivity, and 16.1% of the population is undernourished, even though the annual paddy surplus now stands at 3.3 million tons. Of the 3.98 million hectares (ha) of agricultural land in Cambodia, only about 1.3 million ha are within the command area of 2,730 irrigation systems. Most of these systems are either underperforming or dysfunctional due to various reasons such as (i) those irrigation systems were constructed without proper design not taking into account crop water requirements, water availability, and hydraulic considerations, and many of those did not have distribution system; and (ii) most of the systems are aged and need upgrading and remodeling that is restricted by lack of resources. As a result, water is not made available for irrigation during dry season and irrigation systems are supplementing current farming that revolves around growing wet season rice leading to cropping intensity of about 100%.
Significant seasonal variations in rainfall and river discharges make sustained year-round agricultural production difficult. Cambodia has five major river basins and average annual surface water volume flowing through the rivers is about 472 billion cubic meters (BCM), of which about 437 BCM (92.5%) discharges out of country to Mekong Delta. Out of the remaining 35 BCM (7.5%), productive consumption by all users is estimated about 10 BCM (only about 2% of the total surface water). Agriculture is the biggest user and utilizes about 95% of the total water consumed annually in Cambodia. The huge gap between water availability and water consumption reflects great potential for developing water resources to ensure supplies for irrigation, particularly during dry season, that can increase cropping intensity of 3.98 million ha of agricultural land from about 100% to 200%-300%. Out of total 472 BCM, only about 105 BCM (22%) is yielded in dry season. Cambodia is among the top ten countries that are expected to be most severely affected due to climate change. Water availability in the future is expected to have more pronounced seasonal variability, with few months of floods and long spells of drought, warranting introduction of climate-resilience in the design of subprojects. The timely availability and efficient management of water is of prime importance for enhancing agriculture productivity and crop diversification. Efficient, effective, and sustainable management of the country's water resources largely depends upon how efficiently irrigation systems are managed.
Operation and maintenance (O&M) of irrigation systems has been a challenge in Cambodia like many other developing countries mainly because there was no mechanism to (i) identify the systems requiring O&M or rehabilitation or replacement; (ii) estimate the financial and in-kind resource requirement; and (iii) involve water users. These issues have been addressed under Asian Development Bank (ADB) financed policy based loan, approved in 2010 for Water Resources Management Sector Development Program, that supported the government in: (i) strengthening legal framework for O&M; (ii) adopting the guidelines for division of asset responsibility between the government and farmer water user communities (FWUCs); (iii) assigning appropriate responsibilities and rights for irrigation infrastructure to respective FWUCs; (iv) strengthening O&M planning processes by adopting policy and implementation manual and guidelines for O&M, and preparing a comprehensive O&M plan; and (v) carrying out condition survey of the irrigation canals and updating Cambodia Irrigation Schemes Information System. A sub-decree was issued by the government in 2015 for implementing these O&M reforms. Forming a FWUC for each irrigation system and assigning the responsibilities is made mandatory in the sub-decree. This is a major institutional reform to sustainably manage irrigation systems, which ADB is incorporating in new projects since 2015.
To manage the water sector and irrigation subsector in particular with modern approaches commensurate with the present and future best practices, real-time river flow and rainfall data is an essential pre-requisite. At present, many rivers and sub-basins are not gauged. ADB and other development partners are investing on installing hydro-meteorological stations with the aim of covering all basins and rivers with automated gauging stations and using remote sensing for water accounting. It is expected that Cambodia's entire water basins and rivers would be gauged in the next five years. A common platform is required to scientifically compile, analyze and disseminate the recorded data for planners, designers, decision makers, managers, and water users.
The investments by the government, with support from ADB and other development partners, have been focusing mainly on the rehabilitation of irrigation. There is need to shift the focus to integrated approach for modernizing operational management, upgrading/remodeling, and building resilience against natural disasters. There is a large gap between the available and required resources for that purpose. ADB has been providing support to the Government for both financing as well as technical guidance for sustainable management of the sector. ADB has been supporting the government in implementing institutional, policy, and legal reforms and innovations. The recent innovation introduced by ADB in Cambodia, under Uplands Irrigation and Water Resources Management Sector Project approved in 2015, is a new approach for sustainable management of irrigation systems that integrates modernizing operational management, upgrading and remodeling infrastructure, increasing irrigation efficiency, enhancing water productivity, and building climate resilience. This is a major shift from conventional investment model that focused mainly on rehabilitation of canals.
The proposed Irrigated Agriculture Improvement Project will replicate and scale up the approach and new investment model introduced under the Uplands Irrigation Project. It shall support implementation of the government's National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) on Water Resources and Meteorology and ADB's sector strategy to enhance agricultural and rural economic productivity. The project will contribute to achieving targets defined in NSDP that is derived from the government's rectangular strategy. The strategy aims to develop and expand the country's irrigated land and manage its water resources more effectively by improving existing irrigation systems, making water user communities more efficient, building capacity of the water users, and reducing the vulnerability of the Cambodia's people to natural disasters. The project will also incorporate findings and recommendations of ADB's sector strategy including (i) enhancing agriculture productivity, (ii) promoting diversification, (iii) environmental sustainability and climate change, (iv) gender development, and (v) addressing institutional constraints. It shall be consistent with two of the major strategic thrusts and components of the Country Partnership Strategy 2014-2018, i.e. agriculture and physical infrastructure. It shall also conform to ADB's Water Operational Plan and Irrigation Subsector Guidance Note, 2017 that focus on increasing irrigation efficiency and water productivity; and Agriculture and Natural Resources Operational Plan that focuses on increasing agricultural productivity and improved management of natural resources.
|Description of Outcome|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs|
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||The Asian Development Bank will recruit the consultants as per the Project Administration Instructions. One consulting firm will be recruited by using quality- and cost-based selection method at a ratio of 90:10 based on a full technical proposal. Four experts including (I) international procurement specialist, (ii) international environment specialist, (iii) international social development/safeguards specialist; and (iv) international gender specialist will be recruited as individual consultants.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Dang, Thuy Trang|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, SERD|
Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology
364 Monivong Blvd, Khan Chamkamorn Phnom Penh, Cambodia
|Concept Clearance||29 Jun 2017|
|Approval||31 Jul 2017|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||28 Sep 2017|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|31 Jul 2017||29 Aug 2017||29 Aug 2017||30 Jun 2019||-||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|2,000,000.00||500,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||2,500,000.00||31 Jul 2017||520,560.55|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.
In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Irrigated Agriculture Improvement Project: Technical Assistance Report||Technical Assistance Reports||Jul 2017|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
None currently available.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.
Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.
|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|International Social Development/Safeguards Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Active||10 Aug 2017||16 Aug 2017|
|International Gender Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Active||10 Aug 2017||16 Aug 2017|
|International Procurement Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Active||10 Aug 2017||16 Aug 2017|
|International Environment Specialist||Individual - Consulting||Active||10 Aug 2017||16 Aug 2017|
|Contract Title||Approval Number||Contract Date||Contractor||Contractor Address||Executing Agency||Contract Description||Total Contract Amount (US$)||Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)|
|Project Preparatory||Technical Assistance 9349||19 Sep 2017||PACIFIC RIM INNOVATION & MANAGEMENT EXPONENTS, INC(PHILIPPINES) in association with SHELADIA ASSOCIATES, INC.(UNITED STATES)||502 MANILA LUXURY CONDOMINIUM PEARL DRIVE, ORTIGAS CENTER, PASIG CITY METRO MANILA, PHILIPPINES||Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology||Consulting Services||2035000|
None currently available.