The proposed knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will enhance the knowledge and capacity of participating developing member countries (DMCs) to develop policy actions and technological solutions for air quality management. This TA will also build the business case through the preparation of City Level Clean Air Action Plans (CAAPs) along with investment plans to implement CAAPs. This TA is designed based on the request of DMCs and included in the Environment Thematic Group's 2018 annual work program.
|Project Name||Strengthening Knowledge and Actions for Air Quality Improvement|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Private sector development
|Sector / Subsector||
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Other urban services - Urban policy, institutional and capacity development
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Some gender elements|
|Description||The proposed knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will enhance the knowledge and capacity of participating developing member countries (DMCs) to develop policy actions and technological solutions for air quality management. This TA will also build the business case through the preparation of City Level Clean Air Action Plans (CAAPs) along with investment plans to implement CAAPs. This TA is designed based on the request of DMCs and included in the Environment Thematic Group's 2018 annual work program.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
Air pollution is now the most pressing environmental concern and one of the leading preventable causes of death in the world. The combined effects of ambient (outdoor) and household (indoor) air pollution cause about 6.5 million premature deaths annually. Among all air pollutants, particulate matter (PM2.5) is the best studied and is linked to a wide range of diseases in several human organ systems.
More than ninety percent of cities in Asia are experiencing unhealthy levels of particulate pollution. Estimates prepared under the RETA 8751 (Mainstreaming Air quality in Urban Development South-South Learning) using Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data, show that around 4 million people died in Asian and Pacific countries in 2016 from exposure to PM2.5 in ambient and household environment, which translates into a loss of $1.76 trillion of statistical life value in 2016. The poor are more vulnerable to the health impacts of air pollution due to poor nutrition and lack of access to medical care. Unless actions are taken, risks to human health and associated costs to society will be rising rapidly. Investments in air pollution abatement offer no-regrets options to boost the economic development (through better energy efficient technologies, improved transportation system, enhanced urban facilities, and overall productivity), mitigate climate change and contribute to healthier environment and productive lives.
While each country and city have challenges that are unique to their national or local context, there are many shared or common challenges in air quality management (AQM): (i) weak institutional capacity and arrangements; (ii) inappropriate policies, strategies and laws; (iii) lack of reliable baseline data; (iv) lack of awareness on air pollution related health and environmental impacts; (v) lack of knowledge, willingness and access to process improvements, cleaner and energy efficient technologies; (vi) continued use of age-old and inefficient technologies that contribute to air pollution; (vii) absence of a technology transfer program; and (viii) absence of supporting regulations, fiscal incentives and standards. Good urban planning can improve air quality in the long run by strategic location of polluting sources and exposed population and encouraging a city structure to minimize pollution emissions and build-up.
Learning from successful strategies, policies and approaches adopted in other Asian cities can help lead the way to achieving better air quality in Asia. ADB working with Clean Air Asia (CAA), has been supporting DMCs through several technical assistance projects to create awareness on the impacts of air pollution, research and development of tools, and knowledge dissemination such as the Better Air Quality (BAQ) workshops. Building CAA's work, there is a need to expand ADB's support to help DMCs to develop bankable proposals on AQM. ADB can assist DMCs to learn and benefit from initiatives in other countries especially in PRC. ADB's multi-year and multi-sectoral technical assistance and investments program (policy-based loan, green financing platform and FI loan) for air quality improvement in the Greater Beijing Tianjin Hebei (BTH) region showed that air quality improvement requires targeted appropriate assessment, capacity building, well-developed plan and investment towards cleaner technology. The policy-based loan to Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar Air Quality Improvement Program and ongoing and/or recently completed TAs can help to overcome knowledge gaps and capacity constraints. In addition, DMCs can get knowledge from ADB sector initiatives on improving the quality of urban development, clean energy and sustainable transport.
Encouragingly, extreme air pollution events have led to strong public demands for clean air action in many Asian cities and countries. It has captured international attention and thereby that of national and city governments. There is evidence from the World Health Organization (WHO) data that an improvement in air quality is already being realized in high-income Asian cities that meet WHO air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and other pollutants. The challenge is now to move the low- and middle-income Asian cities compliance with national standards and WHO guideline values. This will require technical assistance to further deepen the air quality analysis, strengthen policy and institutions and prepare clean air action plans with investment estimates.
|Impact||Air Quality levels in selected DMCs improved.|
|Description of Outcome||Commitment of selected DMCs to improve air quality management increased.|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||
Current air quality situation and management practice assessed
Innovative cost-effective technological and policy options for addressing air quality evaluated.
City Level Clean Air Action Plans (CAAPs) along with investment estimates for air pollution control developed.
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)|
|Geographical Location||Bangladesh - Nation-wide; Mongolia - Nation-wide; Pakistan - Nation-wide; Philippines - Nation-wide; Viet Nam - Nation-wide|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||Firm and Individuals|
|Procurement||Procurement of low-cost air quality monitoring devices|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Ferdausi, Shakil A.|
|Responsible ADB Department||SDEC|
|Responsible ADB Division||SDES|
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue,
Mandaluyong City 1550, Philippines
|Concept Clearance||20 Apr 2018|
|Approval||05 Oct 2018|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||10 Oct 2018|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|05 Oct 2018||-||05 Oct 2018||30 Sep 2021||-||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|500,000.00||2,000,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||2,500,000.00||05 Oct 2018||0.00|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Strengthening Knowledge and Actions for Air Quality Improvement: Technical Assistance Report||Technical Assistance Reports||Oct 2018|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
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|Tender Title||Type||Status||Posting Date||Deadline|
|TA Administrator/Coordinator||Individual - Consulting||Active||20 Oct 2018||26 Oct 2018|
No contracts awarded for this project were found
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