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Mongolia: Support for Inclusive Education

Sovereign (Public) Project | 52103-001 Status: Proposed

Persons with disabilities (PWD) face considerable disadvantages compared to the rest of the Mongolian population. Among households with one or more person with a disability, the poverty rate is more than double that of households with none. Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty and vulnerability. Disability can cause poverty because of barriers to education and skills development, and therefore employment. It also involves significant additional expenditure, including on health services (footnote 1). It can be a consequence of poverty both because poverty can limit access to needed services and because poverty may increase the likelihood that a person is exposed to an environment that may adversely affect health. Estimates of the number of Mongolians with disabilities vary. The National Programme on the Rights, Participation and Development of Persons with Disabilities, 2018 2022, estimates nearly 101,000 PWD Mongolia of whom just over 10,400 are children aged 0-17.

Project Details

Project Officer
Karin Schelzig East Asia Department Request for information
Country
  • Mongolia
Sector
  • Education
 
Project Name Support for Inclusive Education
Project Number 52103-001
Country Mongolia
Project Status Proposed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Source of Funding / Amount
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Education / Pre-primary and primary

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Gender equity
Description
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Persons with disabilities (PWD) face considerable disadvantages compared to the rest of the Mongolian population. Among households with one or more person with a disability, the poverty rate is more than double that of households with none. Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty and vulnerability. Disability can cause poverty because of barriers to education and skills development, and therefore employment. It also involves significant additional expenditure, including on health services (footnote 1). It can be a consequence of poverty both because poverty can limit access to needed services and because poverty may increase the likelihood that a person is exposed to an environment that may adversely affect health. Estimates of the number of Mongolians with disabilities vary. The National Programme on the Rights, Participation and Development of Persons with Disabilities, 2018 2022, estimates nearly 101,000 PWD Mongolia of whom just over 10,400 are children aged 0-17.

In Mongolia, among PWD of working age, only 19% are employed (footnote 3). This is in stark contrast to working age people without disabilities, among whom 64% are employed. Low educational attainment is a major contributing factor. School attendance for children with disabilities (CWD) is much lower than for children without disabilities, and particularly low in rural areas. There are also gender differences: girls' attendance is higher than boys', especially in higher grades, both in the general population and among CWD. Among children 6 to 18 years old, almost half of children with disabilities (CWD) are unable to read, whereas just 4% of those without disabilities are unable to read. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of CWD age 3 5 are not attending kindergarten, versus nearly one-third (32%) of young children without disabilities. Women are the overwhelming majority of primary caregivers for CWD not attending school. While the social assistance system includes a caregivers' allowance, the benefit level is low.

PWD are left considerably behind in terms of the highest level of education achieved. One out of five Mongolian PWD has not completed any level of education, compared to less than 4% of the rest of the population. Census data, which distinguishes between acquired and congenital disability, reveals huge differences among those aged six and older: 47% of people with congenital disabilities have not completed any level of education, compared to only 12% of those who acquired a disability. This confirms significant barriers to education for CWD. The root causes of those barriers include (i) limited access to schools primarily because of poor infrastructure, negative parent and community attitudes, and lack of access to transportation; (ii) poor quality education for CWD given a lack of capacity among teachers at regular schools, insufficient teaching and learning materials, and unmet demand for assistive devices, augmentative and alternative communication equipment, and innovative assistive technologies to support functionality; and (iii) inadequate school and aimag education department support for inclusive education because of a lack of capacity and resource centers to support inclusive cultures, policies and practices at schools

Impact Equal participation of persons with disabilities without any discrimination in all aspects of life
Outcome Access to and quality of education for boys and girls with disabilities improved
Outputs

Access to regular schools and kindergartens improved

Quality of inclusive education enhanced

Inclusive education support resources and policy strengthened

Geographical Location Nation-wide
Safeguard Categories
Environment C
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation
Responsible ADB Officer Karin Schelzig
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Education, Culture, Science & Sports
Government Building-III, Suite # 514, Baga toiruu-44, Sukhbaatar district
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Timetable
Concept Clearance 10 Jun 2019
Fact Finding 27 May 2019 to 05 Jun 2019
MRM -
Approval -
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 11 Jun 2019

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