Mongolia: Support for Inclusive Education Project

Sovereign Project | 52103-001

Children with disabilities (CWD) benefit both academically and socio-emotionally from attending mainstream kindergartens and schools with their same-age peers. The project will improve access to and quality of mainstream education for CWD in Mongolia by improving accessibility features in selected mainstream schools and kindergartens; building capacity to deliver inclusive education; and strengthening inclusive education support resources, community engagement, and policy. The project has strong pro-poor, socially inclusive, and gender-sensitive features. The direct beneficiaries will be CWD and their families, especially women as the primary caregivers, but inclusive education also brings significant benefits to the wider community.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Tadevosyan, Gohar
    East Asia Department
    Request for information
  • Country/Economy
    Mongolia
  • Sector
    • Education
Project Name Support for Inclusive Education Project
Project Number 52103-001
Country / Economy Mongolia
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 9208-MON: Support for Inclusive Education
Japan Fund for Prosperous and Resilient Asia and the Pacific US$ 2.00 million
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Education / Pre-primary and primary

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Gender equity
Description Children with disabilities (CWD) benefit both academically and socio-emotionally from attending mainstream kindergartens and schools with their same-age peers. The project will improve access to and quality of mainstream education for CWD in Mongolia by improving accessibility features in selected mainstream schools and kindergartens; building capacity to deliver inclusive education; and strengthening inclusive education support resources, community engagement, and policy. The project has strong pro-poor, socially inclusive, and gender-sensitive features. The direct beneficiaries will be CWD and their families, especially women as the primary caregivers, but inclusive education also brings significant benefits to the wider community.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Persons with disabilities (PWD) in Mongolia face considerable challenges. Among households with one or more persons with disability, the poverty rate is more than double that of households with none. PWD are more likely to be poor because of physical, financial, and cultural barriers to education and skills development, and consequently to good jobs and other forms of social inclusion. Among Mongolian PWD of working age, fewer than one in five (19%) are employed, in stark contrast to working age people without disabilities, among whom nearly two-thirds (64%) are employed. According to Mongolia's National Program for the Rights, Protection, and Participation of PWD there were nearly 101,000 PWD in 2017. Estimates of the prevalence of CWD vary. The country's social protection database listed 11,244 CWD in 2018 but this is likely to be an underestimate of the number of children with functional difficulties as eligibility for social protection benefits requires a formal diagnosis.

Mongolia's 2016 Law on the Rights of PWD covers the right to education and specifies the duty of (i) schools to adapt to the needs of CWD, (ii) parents to enrol their children in school, and (iii) social workers to play an important intermediary role and provide information and support. However, boys and girls with disabilities remain excluded from quality mainstream education, and low educational attainment is a major source of vulnerability. Just 44% of CWD were enrolled in mainstream schools in 2010. School attendance is much lower for CWD than for children without disabilities, particularly in rural areas. There are also gender disparities boys' enrolment as a share of the total drops in higher grades, both in the general population and among CWD. Among CWD aged 6 18 years almost half are unable to read, whereas only 4% of those without disabilities are unable to read. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of CWD aged 3 5 years are not attending kindergarten, versus nearly one-third (32%) of children of the same age without disabilities. Women are the vast majority of primary caregivers for CWD not attending school. While the social assistance system provides an allowance for caregivers, the benefit level is low.

One out of every five Mongolian PWD has not completed any level of education, compared to fewer than 4% of the rest of the population. The root causes of the barriers to education for CWD include (i) limited physical access to schools primarily because of a lack of accessibility features in schools, difficulties in accessing adequate transportation, unmet demand for assistive devices, augmentative and alternative communication equipment, and other innovative technologies to support functionality, and a lack of inclusive education resource centers in schools; (ii) poor quality education for CWD given the lack of capacity among teachers at mainstream schools, insufficient teaching and learning materials, and an outdated curriculum; and (iii) inadequate community, school, and education department support for inclusive education due to negative parent and community attitudes, and a lack of understanding and capacity to support inclusive culture, policies, and practices at schools.

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, and Sports (MECSS) is committed to effecting a shift away from the current dual system of mainstream and special education to an inclusive one where all children, including CWD, can enjoy the right to quality education in an inclusive environment. The new ministerial order A292 of May 2019, Guidance on Inclusive Education of CWD, envisions that all schools will respect the rights of children with different needs to education and development and provide conditions for them to stay in mainstream or regular schools. The order sets out the principles and key activities of inclusive education, and mandates schools to establish (i) child development support classrooms either independently or shared among schools, and (ii) school support teams to provide coordinated development support services. The support teams will comprise the school director, the head of studies, the school social worker, the head of the primary teachers' unit, teachers, the school doctor, a representative from the khoroo (urban district), and a specialist from the local education department. The order includes a list of recommended equipment and supplies for the support classrooms.

The participation of civil society and especially disabled people's organizations (DPOs), is essential for planning, implementing, and monitoring inclusive education in Mongolia. Civil society consultations elicited views on challenges and priority issues in inclusive education, including the need to collaborate with parents to address discriminatory attitudes. DPOs highlighted (i) the importance of capacity building at the national and subnational levels on the approach of inclusion as opposed to integration (separate classrooms in mainstream schools) or segregation (separate schools), and (ii) the need to establish more resource centers to support teachers with teaching and learning resources.

Impact Equal participation of persons with disabilities without any discrimination in all aspects of life achieved
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Access to and quality of education for boys and girls with disabilities improved
Progress Toward Outcome The grant was approved on 3 July 2020, signed on 15 September 2020, and became effective on 16 November 2020. The EA has established the project implementation unit. A virtual inception mission was held in June 2021 to initiate grant activities including procurement of three consulting services packages which is currently ongoing.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Accessibility features of mainstream schools and kindergartens improved

Capacity to deliver inclusive education enhanced

Inclusive education support resources, community engagement, and policy strengthened

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues) The virtual inception mission in June 2021 updated the cost estimates, the implementation schedule, the procurement plan, and contract award and disbursement projections, and included orientation and training sessions for the EA and PIU on JFPR implementation requirements, gender action plan monitoring, financial management, and procurement.
Geographical Location Nation-wide
Safeguard Categories
Environment C
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services The grant will finance small civil works, equipment, consulting services, training, and project management.
Responsible ADB Officer Tadevosyan, Gohar
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Education and Science
[email protected]
Government Building-III, Suite # 514, Baga toiruu-44, Sukhbaatar district
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Ministry of Education and Science
Government Building-III, Suite # 514, Baga toiruu-44, Sukhbaatar district
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Timetable
Concept Clearance 10 Jun 2019
Fact Finding 27 May 2019 to 05 Jun 2019
MRM -
Approval 03 Jul 2020
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 21 Sep 2021

Grant 9208-MON

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
03 Jul 2020 15 Sep 2020 16 Nov 2020 29 Feb 2024 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 2.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 08 Aug 2022 0.00 0.91 45%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 2.00 08 Aug 2022 0.00 0.47 23%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

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Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.


Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

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Related Publications

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Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
Construction Supervision Consultant Individual - Consulting Closed 27 Jul 2022 02 Aug 2022
Grant 9208-MON: Support for Inclusive Education Project (W001) Invitation for Bids Closed 30 Jun 2022 01 Aug 2022
Curriculum Development and training Program for Teachers and School Directors Firm - Consulting Closed 02 Nov 2021 16 Nov 2021
Curriculum development and training program for teachers and school directors Firm - Consulting Closed 06 Jul 2021 26 Jul 2021
Design and safeguard monitoring Firm - Consulting Closed 17 Jun 2021 01 Jul 2021
Inclusive education support resources, community engagement, and policy Firm - Consulting Closed 10 Jun 2021 24 Jun 2021

Contracts Awarded

Contract Title Approval Number Contract Date Contractor | Address Executing Agency Total Contract Amount (US$) Contract Amount Financed by ADB (US$)
C001: Curriculum development and training program for teachers and school directors Grant 9208 31 Dec 2021 Policy Analysis Institute NGO | Peace avenue Suite 815 Mongot sharga tower - level 8 Chingeltei district Ulaanbaatar Ministry of Education and Science of Mongolia 366,922.67
C002: Inclusive education support resources community engagement and policy Grant 9208 18 Nov 2021 Mongolian Education Alliance | Sukhbaatar district 1st khoroo Chinggis Avenue 15/1 Ulaanbaatar Ministry of Education and Science of Mongolia 385,737.14